地理研究 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (9): 1744-1754.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509012

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居民就业可达性的空间分布及对收入的影响——基于上海都市区的实证研究

吴江洁1,2(), 孙斌栋1,2()   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062
    2. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2015-03-18 修回日期:2015-06-30 出版日期:2015-09-15 发布日期:2015-09-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:吴江洁(1988- ),女,湖南长沙人,博士研究生,研究方向为城市经济和空间结构。E-mail: wjjorange@yeah.net

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471139);上海市哲学社会科学规划课题(2014BCK003);教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(11JJDZH004)

Job accessibility and its impact on income: Outcomes from Shanghai Metropolitan Area

Jiangjie WU1,2(), Bindong SUN1,2()   

  1. 1. Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2015-03-18 Revised:2015-06-30 Online:2015-09-15 Published:2015-09-28

摘要:

基于第六次人口普查、第二次经济普查和问卷调查数据,定量描述和分析了上海都市区内部以街道为空间尺度的就业可达性及其空间格局,探讨了劳动者的工资收入与居住区位就业可达性的关系。结论表明:上海市的居民就业可达性呈现相对均衡的多中心分布格局,与北京就业可达性单中心的分布格局有明显的不同。同时,在控制个人经济社会属性和地区属性的条件下,上海的居民就业可达性对居民个人收入水平具有显著的正向影响。这一结论的政策含义是,地理区位较差的住房有损于居民收入,可能是吸引力不足的重要原因之一;政府通过提高地区的居民就业可达性,有助于改善就业机会,促进居民个人收入的增加。

关键词: 就业可达性, 空间格局, 收入水平, 上海都市区

Abstract:

The social effects of city spatial structure have long been an important issue in the field of urban geography and urban economics research. However, the impact of job-housing spatial relationship on income has received little attention in empirical analyses. Employing the Sixth Population Census and the Second Economic Census datasets, we apply a measure of job accessibility developed by Ong & Blumenberg to describe the spatial structure of employment opportunities and working people in Shanghai Metropolitan Area at sub-district level. Combining survey data, we empirically investigate the extent to which individual income may be influenced by job proximity. The results are the following. First, Shanghai has a polycentric job accessibility structure, indicating that job accessibility are very similar both in the inner city and in the sub-district. This does not apply to the case of Beijing. The main reason which can explain this phenomenon may be that Beijing and Shanghai have different industrial structures. Beijing strongly relies on services sector, which has caused most of job opportunities to be located in inner-city. As for Shanghai, manufacture still plays an important role in economic growth and many of jobs are located in suburban area of Shanghai. Second, the output of the regression shows that incomes are significantly and positively associated with job accessibility, indicating that personal income level increases along with job proximity increases correspondingly. In more detail, people who live in the sub-districts with richer job opportunities have higher income level. For people who live in job-poor sub-districts usually have lower incomes, which may be due to higher commuting expense and employment pressure. Since job proximity is closely related to income, those housing areas far from inner city and job opportunities may not only damage social efficiency but also drive the level of individual income down. This may be one of the reasons why people are not willing to live far from inner-city. It also inspires the local government that moderate measures on increasing job accessibilities are needed for improving employment situation and individuals’ income level. Job accessibility can be improved by creating more job opportunities which are suitable to the residents, and also by enabling the workers to travel easily to work sites.

Key words: job accessibility, spatial pattern, income level, Shanghai Metropolitan Area