地理研究 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (10): 1933-1942.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201510011

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国西部地区贸易格局与贸易结构分析

郑蕾1,2,3(), 宋周莺1,2(), 刘卫东1,2, 刘毅1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-06 修回日期:2015-08-19 出版日期:2015-10-15 发布日期:2015-10-30
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:郑蕾(1988- ),女,河南南阳人,博士研究生,主研究方向为经济地理、全球化和区域发展。E-mail: zhengl.11s@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371006);中科院STS项目(KFJ-EW-STS-003)

Spatial pattern and trade structure of foreign trade in western China

Lei ZHENG1,2,3(), Zhouying SONG1,2(), Weidong LIU1,2, Yi LIU1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2015-04-06 Revised:2015-08-19 Online:2015-10-15 Published:2015-10-30

摘要:

随着西部大开发战略深入实施,西部地区对外贸易迅速发展,“一带一路”战略更为其提供了绝好机遇。采用贸易结合度指数、显性比较优势和出口相似度指数等方法,从空间结构和产品结构刻画西部地区外贸格局及其省际差异。研究发现:① 西部地区形成以重庆、四川为核心,广西、云南、新疆三大边疆省份为高地的对外开放格局;② 外贸规模最大的是美国等传统贸易大国和哈萨克斯坦、澳大利亚等资源型出口国,外贸依存关系最密切的是周边国家和非洲部分经济欠发达国家;③ 外贸结构趋于优化,机电设备等产品出口比重提高,但具有强竞争优势的仍为资源和劳动密集型产品;④ 呈现结构相近的两大出口组团和三大进口组团,其中四川和重庆外贸结构较优,以较高技术含量的机器电气设备和交通运输设备为主。

关键词: 西部地区, 对外贸易, 空间格局, 进出口结构, 省际差异

Abstract:

Since the implementation of "Western Region Development Program", western China has embraced a foreign trade boom. The foreign trade evolvement in western China not only creates a broader scope for the national economic development, but also completes the overall opening-up of China. Under this background, this paper uses several indices (such as trade intensity index, revealed comparative advantage, coefficient of variation, export similar index) to analyze the spatial pattern and trade structure of foreign trade in western China. The research results show that western China has witnessed a divergence in provincial foreign trade expansion. As trade of Sichuan and Chongqing grows quickly and turns into the core driving force of the whole trade in the western region, while Xinjiang, Yunnan and Guangxi have become the pioneer in the western frontier region. Second, the results illustrate that the major trade partners by scale are traditional major traders such as USA, and resource-exporters such as Australia and Kazakhstan. In contrast, neighboring countries and developing countries in Africa are the closest trade companions of western China. Third, western China has a gradually optimizing export structure with the improving proportion of mechanical and electrical equipment, whereas the most competitive commodities are still resource and labor intensive products. Fourth, provinces in western China can be divided into two export groups and three import groups based on the trade structure similarity. The first export group, including Chongqing, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Guangxi and Gansu, is featured by exporting mechanical and electrical equipment; the second group, consisting of Xinjiang, Tibet, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Qinghai, mainly export textiles, clothing and chemicals. The first import group, including Chongqing, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Ningxia and Qinghai, focuses on mechanical and electrical equipment; the second import group, consisting of Guizhou, Yunnan and Gansu, with ores, slag and ash as leading imports; the third import group, including Xinjiang, Guangxi and Inner Mongolia, is featured by importing mineral fuels and its products.

Key words: Western China, foreign trade, spatial pattern, trade structure, provincial divergence