地理研究 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (11): 2035-2048.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201511003

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中国城乡基本公共服务均等化及其空间格局分析

韩增林(), 李彬(), 张坤领   

  1. 辽宁师范大学海洋经济与可持续发展研究中心,大连 116029
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-15 修回日期:2015-09-11 出版日期:2015-11-15 发布日期:2015-11-24
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:韩增林(1956- ),男,山东商河人,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为海洋经济地理。E-mail: hzl@lnnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地项目(14JJD790038)

Evaluation and spatial analysis of the equalization of basic public service in urban and rural areas in China

Zenglin HAN(), Bin LI(), Kunling ZHANG   

  1. Center for Studies of Marine Economy and Sustainable Development of Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, Liaoning, China
  • Received:2015-04-15 Revised:2015-09-11 Online:2015-11-15 Published:2015-11-24

摘要:

以中国31个省级行政单位为研究对象,从教育服务、文化服务、医疗卫生服务、基础设施服务、社会保障服务和信息化服务6个方面构建指标体系,综合测度各省份城市和农村基本公共服务水平;利用信息熵原理构建基本公共服务均等化指数,测度各省份城乡基本公共服务均等化程度,并用探索性空间数据分析方法对城乡基本公共服务均等化指数的空间格局进行研究。研究表明:① 各省份城市和农村基本公共服务水平的差异均十分显著。城市基本公共服务水平的空间分布为“T”字型格局,并呈“东—中—西”阶梯状递减;农村基本公共服务水平的空间分布与城市存在很大的不一致性,呈“东—西—中”阶梯状递减的格局。② 31个省份的城乡基本公共服务均等化指数偏低,其空间分布存在着显著的全局空间自相关特征。③ 各省份农村基本公共服务水平对均等化指数的影响大于城市,城乡基本公共服务均等化指数与农村基本公共服务水平的关系类似马太效应。

关键词: 城乡, 基本公共服务水平, 均等化, 空间格局

Abstract:

With the rapid socio-economic development, and the progresses of urbanization, the demand for basic public service is increasing both in rural and urban areas. Thus, regional and urban-rural non-equalization are increasingly prominent, which are critical to the development of the harmonious society. Against this background, the paper established an index system for basic public service level evaluation from six aspects, including education services, cultural services, health services, social security services, infrastructure services and information services, in order to assess the basic public service level in both urban and rural areas of China's 31 provincial level administrative units. Taking the assessment outcomes as variables, we evaluated equalizations of basic public service in urban and rural areas of China's 31 provincial level administrative units by the method of information entropy. Finally, we explored the spatial pattern of the equalization of basic public service in urban and rural areas with the method of "Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis". As a result, firstly, there are significant inter-provincial differences in the public service level between urban and rural areas. The spatial distribution of basic public service level in urban areas present the letter "T" shape, and the basic public service level decreases from east to central part then to west, while the spatial distribution of basic public service level in rural areas, in contrast, decreases from east to west then central region. These results suggested that to speed up the economic development of relatively backward areas is an effective way to improve the level of basic public service in urban areas. Secondly, equalizations of basic public service in urban and rural areas are generally low, with a significant global autocorrelation in the spatial distribution. Thirdly, the relationship between the equalization of basic public service in urban and rural areas and the basic public service level of rural areas is similar to the Matthew Effect. The influence of basic public service level of rural areas on the index of the equalization of basic public service is greater than that of urban areas. So, it is important for the improvement of the equalization of basic public service to enhance the level of basic public service of rural areas.

Key words: rural and urban areas, the level of basic public service, equalization, spatial pattern