地理研究 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (11): 2095-2104.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201511008

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近46年松木希错流域冰川和湖泊变化及原因分析

李治国1,2(), 芦杰1, 史本林1, 李红忠1, 张延伟1, 李琳1   

  1. 1. 商丘师范学院环境与规划学院,商丘 476000
    2. 中国科学院青藏高原研究所,北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-24 修回日期:2015-09-19 出版日期:2015-11-15 发布日期:2015-11-24
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李治国(1979- ),男,山东禹城人,副教授,主要从事资源环境与区域发展研究。E-mail:lizhiguo999999@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41101072,41025002,31100369)

Glaciers and lake changes (1968-2013) and their causes in the Songmuxi Co Basin, Northwest Tibetan Plateau

Zhiguo LI1,2(), Jie LU1, Benlin SHI1, Hongzhong LI1, Yanwei ZHANG1, Lin LI1   

  1. 1. Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000, Henan, China
    2. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Beijing 100085, China
  • Received:2015-04-24 Revised:2015-09-19 Online:2015-11-15 Published:2015-11-24

摘要:

采用1:5万地形图、Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI遥感影像及数字高程模型数据,利用遥感和地理信息系统技术,并结合狮泉河、和田和于田3个气象站点1968-2013年的气温、降水量数据对松木希错流域的冰川、湖泊面积变化及其原因进行分析。结果表明:① 1968-2013年流域冰川面积不断退缩,由139.25 km2减少至137.27±0.02 km2,共减少1.98±0.02 km2,减少百分比为1.42%,2001年以后冰川退缩速度加快;② 1968-2013年松木希错面积不断扩张,由25.05 km2增加至32.62±0.02 km2,共扩张7.57±0.02 km2,扩张百分比为30.22%,且2001年之后扩张速率加快,在年代际上与冰川的退缩具有较好的耦合性;③ 1968-2013年湖面潜在蒸散量减少和降水增加分别是导致湖泊扩张的第一和第二影响因素,而升温引起的冰川、冻土融水增加有一定贡献,但影响较小且在年际尺度上不显著。

关键词: 冰川, 湖泊, 气候变化, 松木希错

Abstract:

The Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings contain the largest number of glaciers outside the Polar Regions and are known as the world's "third pole". Glacial and lake changes in the third pole not only lead to changes in atmospheric circulation patterns in the region and the northern hemisphere but also affect agriculture, power generation and the water supplies of 1.5 billion people in the surrounding areas across ten countries. Hence, the situation of the glaciers and lakes of the third pole has attracted attention worldwide. While the Himalaya glaciers are largely retreating, the recent evolution of the Karakoram glaciers, widely acknowledged as peculiar, remains poorly understood. Glacial lakes showed a trend of expansion and the great lakes were shrinking in the Himalayas; but lakes in the Karakoram were considered stable. The causes and mechanisms of the complex and regionally heterogeneous behavior of glacier and lake change between the Karakorum and Himalayas are poorly understood. The Songmuxi Co Basin lies in the transitional zone between the Karakorum and Himalayas, and the glaciers and lakes have a significant impact on the local water supply and ecosystem. In this work, glacial and lake changes in the Songmuxi Co Basin, southern Karakoram Mountains were detected based on 1:50000 topographic maps, Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI remote sensing data and GIS techniques. The annual temperature, precipitation, potential annual evaporation at Shiquanhe, Hetian and Yutian stations from 1968 to 2013 were used to analyze climate change and its impact on glaciers and lakes area change. The results can be drawn as follows. (1) From 1968 to 2013, the total glacier area decreased from 139.25 km2 to 137.27 km2, a total loss of 1.98 km2, or 1.42% of the entire glacial area in 1968. In addition, there has been an accelerating trend of glacier retreat since 2001. (2) The area of Songmuxi Co expanded from 25.05 km2 in 1968 to 32.62 km2 in 2013. The overall increase was 7.57 km2, which was 30.22% of the lake area in 1968. The lake area expansion and glaciers retreat have a good coupling on a decadal scale. (3) From 1968 to 2013, the decreased potential evapotranspiration in the lake and increased precipitation are of the first and second factors which lead to lake area expansion. The increase in melt water from glaciers and frozen soil due to climate warming had no great impact on lake area expansion on the interannual scale while it may had some impact on the decadal one.

Key words: glacier, lake, climate change, Songmuxi Co