地理研究 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (11): 2144-2154.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201511013

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江南丘陵区农村居民点地域分异特征及类型划分——以长沙市为例

谭雪兰1,2(), 刘卓3, 贺艳华1, 谭洁2, 张炎思2, 周国华1()   

  1. 1. 湖南师范大学资源与环境学院,长沙 410081
    2. 湖南农业大学资源环境学院,长沙 410128
    3. 湖南省勘测设计院,长沙 410014
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-21 修回日期:2015-09-13 出版日期:2015-11-15 发布日期:2015-11-24
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:谭雪兰(1978- ),女,湖南株洲人,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,主要研究方向为城乡土地利用及乡村地理。E-mail:txl780120@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41201175,41571168,41471145,41301192);湖南省哲学社会科学基金项目(14YBA209);湖南省重点学科地理学建设项目(2011001);湖南省科技厅软科学研究计划项目(2012ZK3147)

Regional differentiation and type division of rural settlements to South of Yangtse River: A case study of Changsha

Xuelan TAN1,2(), Zhuo LIU3, Yanhua HE1, Jie TAN2, Yansi ZHANG2, Guohua ZHOU1()   

  1. 1. Department of Resources and Environment Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
    3. Hunan Institute of Survey and Design, Changsha 410014, China
  • Received:2015-06-21 Revised:2015-09-13 Online:2015-11-15 Published:2015-11-24

摘要:

以长沙市2013年Landsat TM遥感影像图和长沙市的行政区划矢量图为基础,借助于ERDAS、MapGIS、ArcGIS、Fragtats、SPSS软件,运用探索性空间数据分析、景观形状指数模型及聚类分析法,从空间、规模与形态等方面探讨长沙市农村居民点地域分异特征、地域类型及调控路径。研究表明:长沙市农村居民点地域分异特征明显,在空间分布上呈现出由长沙市中部向东西两侧呈阶梯状稀疏化分布;而规模普遍偏小,规模分布自西向东呈现“波浪状”结构;在形态格局上,则表现为布局分散且形态复杂、不规则。通过采用聚类分析方法,将长沙市农村居民点划分为低密度散点型、低密度团簇型、中密度团簇型、高密度团簇型、中密度团块型、中密度条带型、高密度条带型7种,并从人口集聚、产业发展、基础设施与公共服务设施提升等方面提出了各地域类型优化调控的路径。

关键词: 农村居民点, 形态与规模, 空间格局, 地域分异, 地域类型, 长沙市

Abstract:

The study of rural residential areas is an important part in the rural settlement geography, as well as in the research of the regional system of human-environment interaction. With rapid developments of urbanization and industrialization, the rural population is falling substantially, Meanwhile, the urban and rural industrial structure and spatial layout are being adjusted quickly, rural infrastructure are being constructed rapidly, rural production and life style have changed significantly. All these changes are bringing the country towards rapid transformations and reconstructions. How to understand the regional differentiation rules and spatial pattern adjustment and optimization of rural settlements in new era in China, was an important theoretical and practical area carried out in the field of geography. Under this background, it is of great significance to study the regional differentiation and type division of rural settlements in regions south of Yangtse River. Based on the Landsat TM satellite images of Changsha in 2013 and administrative zoning map of Changsha city, using the ERDAS,MapGIS, ArcGIS and Frastats software and methods of exploratory spatial data analysis and spatial matrics, we analyzed the regional differentiation of spatial patterns and types. The results showed that in spatial distribution, the rural settlements in Changsha are characterized by obvious concentration with evident spatial variability. In scale, the rural settlements in Changsha are generally in a smaller scale and the size distribution from west to east is "wavy" structured. The spatial change of form and pattern, through the measurements of pattern indices of two transect zones in areas along the Xiangjiang River and National Highway 319, shows that the form and layout of the rural settlements in Changsha are very complex, scattered and irregular. By establishing the morphological measurement index system of the rural settlements, with the method of clustering analysis, the rural settlements in Changsha are divided into seven types: low-density point-scattered type, low-density cluster-like type, medium cluster-like type, high-density cluster-like type, medium-density mass type, medium-density stripe type, and high-density stripe type. The spatial distribution, the characteristics, forming condition and the mechanism, and adjustment route of each type were analyzed. The medium cluster-like type is the main geographical one, which is also the result of long-term adaptation and selection of the special terrain and land-forming conditions. In the end, optimal regulations such as center village cultivation, rural population and industrial aggregation, infrastructure and public service facilities development were proposed based on the population agglomeration and industrial development as well as infrastructure and public service facilities improvement.

Key words: rural settlements, scale and morphology, spatial pattern, landscape pattern analysis, regional types, Changsha