地理研究 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (12): 2238-2246.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201512003

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中国重点旅游城市气候舒适度及其变化趋势

孔钦钦1,2(), 葛全胜1, 席建超1, 郑景云1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-09 修回日期:2015-11-02 出版日期:2015-12-24 发布日期:2015-12-31
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:孔钦钦(1989- ),男,河南济源人,博士研究生,主要从事气候变化及其影响研究。E-mail: kongqq.12b@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    科技基础性工作专项(2011FY120300);中科院项目XDA05080100;中国气象局课题“避暑旅游指数研究”

Thermal comfort and its trend in key tourism cities of China

Qinqin KONG1,2(), Quansheng GE1, Jianchao XI1, Jingyun ZHENG1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2015-06-09 Revised:2015-11-02 Online:2015-12-24 Published:2015-12-31

摘要:

基于地面气象观测资料和通用热气候指数,研究中国12个重点旅游城市的气候舒适度及其1960-2013年间的变化趋势。结果显示:① 依据气候舒适度年内分布特征,所有城市可分为5种类型,即春、秋适型,春、秋、冬适型,春、夏、秋适型,冬适型和全年不适型。② 1960-2013年,年均通用热气候指数基本均显著增加;哈尔滨、大连增幅最大,分别达1.73 oC/10a、1.44 oC/10a。月均通用热气候指数也一致增加,且增幅冬季大、夏季小。③ 从年尺度看,各城市“冷不舒适”频率降低,“热不舒适”频率增加。哈尔滨、乌鲁木齐、北京、拉萨、西安、上海、三亚年“舒适”频率增加,尤其拉萨增幅高达8.9 d/10a;呼和浩特、大连、昆明、重庆、广州年“舒适”频率降低。④ 从月尺度看,6-9月的“舒适”频率整体降低;11-2月的“舒适”频率整体增加;3-5月及10月表现为纬度或海拔较高城市的“舒适”频率增加,其余城市降低。

关键词: 气候舒适度, 变化趋势, 通用热气候指数, 重点旅游城市

Abstract:

Based on daily observation climate data and the Universal Thermal Climate Index, thermal comfort and its trend during 1960-2013 in 12 key tourism cities of China were investigated. According to the intra-annual distribution of thermally comfortable days, these cities can be classified into 5 categories: (1) Beijing, Dalian, Harbin, Hohhot, Shanghai, Urumqi and Xi'an are thermally comfortable during spring and autumn; Chongqing and Kunming are comfortable during spring, autumn and winter; Lhasa is comfortable during spring, summer and autumn; Guangzhou is comfortable during winter; Sanya is uncomfortable throughout the year. (2) From 1960 to 2013, annual average UTCI shows significant increasing trends for all the cities except Sanya, among which Harbin and Dalian have the largest increases of 1.73 oC/10a and 1.44 oC/10a. Monthly average UTCI also shows consistent positive trends, with larger increases in winter and smaller increases in summer. (3) The annual frequencies of heat stress and cold stress decrease and increase respectively for most cities. The annual number of thermally comfortable days increases in Harbin, Urumqi, Beijing, Lhasa, Xi'an, Shanghai and Sanya, especially in Lhasa where a large increase of 8.9 d/10a was detected. Hohhot, Dalian, Kunming, Chongqing and Guangzhou exhibit decreasing trends in the annual number of thermally comfortable days. (4) The monthly number of thermally comfortable days decreases from June to September, and increases from November to February in most cities. During March, April, May and October, the number of thermally comfortable days tends to increase in cities with relatively high latitudes or altitudes, and decrease in other cities.

Key words: thermal comfort, trend, Universal Thermal Climate Index, key tourism cities