地理研究 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (1): 195-202.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201601017

• • 上一篇    

土壤侵蚀研究中的景观连通度:概念、作用及定量

刘宇()   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,中国科学院生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-17 修回日期:2015-10-26 出版日期:2016-01-23 发布日期:2016-01-27
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘宇(1981- ),男,贵州六盘水人,博士,助理研究员,研究方向为景观格局与生态过程、生态遥感与生态系统评估。E-mail: liuyu@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41301032)

Landscape connectivity in soil erosion research: Concepts, implication and quantification

Yu LIU()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2015-06-17 Revised:2015-10-26 Online:2016-01-23 Published:2016-01-27

摘要:

土壤侵蚀过程是广泛存在的地表物质运移、再分配过程,受景观格局的调控。关于景观格局与土壤侵蚀之间相互关系的研究众多,但耦合景观格局与土壤侵蚀过程的概念框架和有效工具比较少。景观连通度在斑块、坡面到流域等多个尺度上影响土壤侵蚀的发生和发展,是深刻影响土壤侵蚀过程的关键景观格局特征。从景观连通度的概念、分类着手,分析了景观连通度在土壤侵蚀过程中的作用,阐述了土壤侵蚀研究中定量景观连通度的方法,总结了基于土壤侵蚀过程定量景观连通度的两类主要途径:景观连通度指数方法和融合景观连通度概念的分布式土壤侵蚀模型。景观连通度概念及其定量在方法论上将景观格局与土壤侵蚀过程联系起来,是景观格局—土壤侵蚀相互作用研究的有效工具。

关键词: 景观连通度, 土壤侵蚀, 景观格局, 土壤保持

Abstract:

Soil erosion widely occurs across earth surface. It is a redistribution process of sediment over landscapes, and mitigated by landscape pattern. Landscape pattern data can be easily extracted from satellite imageries. However, due to the missing of a concrete conceptual framework, as well as effective tools linking landscape pattern with soil erosion processes, it is difficult to untangle their interactions explicitly. Landscape connectivity is a key landscape characteristic, and plays a critical role in soil erosion process. It shapes the occurrence and evolution of soil erosion from patch to watershed level. In this review, the concept, categorizing, and effect of landscape connectivity are summarized in the context of soil erosion. The connectivity indices and the spatially distributed soil erosion model are the two dominant approaches that can be used to link soil erosion with landscape pattern. Connectivity indices quantify the physical coupling among landscape units, and the functional connectivity, indicating the water or sediment delivery between landscape units. The spatially distributed soil erosion models explicitly incorporate landscape connectivity by taking landscape connectivity indices as parameters, implicitly modelling the in situ sediment production and sediment routing between source areas and sink areas, or along the flow path ways determined by topography. The connectivity concept frameworks effectively linking landscape pattern and soil erosion, and undoubtedly, provide an operational solution for unfolding the interaction between landscape pattern shifts and soil erosion dynamic.

Key words: landscape connectivity, soil erosion, landscape pattern, soil conservation