地理研究 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (3): 431-441.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201603003

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

长春市大型零售设施空间可达性绩效测度

赵梓渝1(), 庞瑞秋2, 王士君2()   

  1. 1. 吉林大学地球科学学院,长春 130061
    2. 东北师范大学地理科学学院,长春 130024
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-20 修回日期:2016-01-05 出版日期:2016-03-20 发布日期:2016-03-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:赵梓渝(1986- ),男,吉林长春人,博士研究生,主要从事城市土地资源管理研究.E-mail: 171462539@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471142, 51178091)

Measurement of spatial accessibility performance of large retailing facilities in Changchun

Ziyu ZHAO1(), Ruiqiu PANG2, Shijun WANG2()   

  1. 1. College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130061, China
    2. School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Received:2015-11-20 Revised:2016-01-05 Online:2016-03-20 Published:2016-03-28

摘要:

对传统的空间可达性测度模型进行改进,并引入营业面积,人口数量,消费者偏好等变量,对长春市大型零售设施进行研究,通过ArcGIS平台对零售设施的分布特征进行分析后表明:① 零售设施主要分布在城市三环路以内,在一环路传统商业区集聚程度最高;快消零售设施空间分布的向心性显著,呈单中心的集聚特征;耐消设施分布的离心化相对明显,呈双中心的集聚特征.② 综合,快消设施可达性绩效高值区集中在一环内,绩效指数向外递减时存在阶梯性,南北方向递减速度高于东西方向,城市南部三环路以外绩效水平最低;耐消设施绩效高值区在空间上分散分布.③ 快消设施绩效低值区是近年来长春市居住空间扩散的主要区域,零售设施的空间配置严重滞后于城市的空间拓展与人口的郊区化趋势.零售设施空间可达性绩效测度是一种关联了供需双方面因素,测量零售设施服务分配到单位消费者水平的方法.

关键词: 空间可达性绩效, 绩效指数, 大型零售设施, 空间分布, 长春

Abstract:

Spatial accessibility performance is an effective tool measuring the supply and demand relationship between the retailing services and consumers. However, the traditional models of spatial accessibility performance merely take into account the spatial distance, while the scale of the retailing service or population density is rarely involved. Therefore, this article manages to improve the traditional model by incorporating the variables of retailing area, population and consumer preference. As a case study, the spatial accessibility performance of the city of Changchun is hereby measured. For convenience of analysis, the results are visualized by the ArcGIS software hereunder. Based on such results, this article concludes that large retailing facilities in Changchun are mainly distributed within the 3rd Ring Road, with higher degree of aggregation in traditional business areas, due to historical impacts; meanwhile, the distribution of retailing facilities for fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) shows great centrality with a single center, while that for durable consumer goods (DCG) shows a dual-core character. This article also concludes that areas with high spatial accessibility performance of comprehensive consumer goods and FMCG retailing facilities concentrate within the 1st Ring Road, with a decreasing trend, particularly in a north-south direction over that of west-east; areas with high performance of DCG retailing facilities tend to be discrete. Finally, this article concludes that the government of Changchun has shifted its urban design strategy from mono-center to dual-center, leading to a great development of a new suburban residential area in the south, but the supply of the FMCG retailing facilities is insufficient. This indicates that spatial distribution of retailing facilities lags behind the trend of urban space expansion and population suburbanization. Accessibility of FMCG outside of the 3rd Ring Road is much less than that at the city center, resulting in dissatisfaction of people's daily needs. Above all, the research findings of this article suggest that spatial accessibility performance of retailing facilities is a key indicator for assessing the livability of an area. The core of the method is to measure the evenness of service distribution among different space units with consideration of factors like population density, service capability, consumer preference, and spatial isolation. During the social transitional period, marketing has gradually become the main approach for the distribution of urban commercial facilities, while problems caused by the lack of policy regulation emerge at the same time. In reality, some retailing service facilities are taken as scarce resources, i.e., a kind of social welfare or invisible income due to their insufficient supply. Reasonable planning for retailing facilities will be a key approach to reduce the social space differentiation.

Key words: spatial accessibility performance, performance indices, large retailing facilities, spatial distribution, Changchun