地理研究 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (5): 851-863.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201605004

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国大陆地区生态诅咒效应的多尺度实证检验

臧正1(), 郑德凤2, 孙才志2, 邹欣庆1,3   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210023
    2. 辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院,大连 116029
    3. 中国南海研究协同创新中心,南京 210093
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-16 修回日期:2016-03-11 出版日期:2016-05-10 发布日期:2016-05-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:臧正(1978- ),男,吉林白城人,博士,助理工程师,主要从事自然资源管理及区域可持续发展研究。E-mail: zangzheng@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家基础科学人才培养基金项目(J1103408);教育部人文社会科学基金项目(14YJAZH112)

Multi-scale empirical test of ecological curse effect in mainland of China

Zheng ZANG1(), Defeng ZHENG2, Caizhi SUN2, Xinqing ZOU1,3   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. School of Urban Planning and Environmental Science, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, Liaoning, China
    3. Collaborative Innovation Center of South China Sea Studies, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2015-11-16 Revised:2016-03-11 Online:2016-05-10 Published:2016-05-10

摘要:

基于生态系统服务理论界定生态福祉概念及其表征、评价方法,借鉴资源诅咒理论,提出广义生态福祉视域下的生态祝福及生态诅咒假说,结合有关年度统计数据、以中国大陆地区为例展开实证分析。结果表明:① 从人均生态福祉来看,全国范围内的绝对生态诅咒假设不成立,东、西部地区生态祝福效应显著;② 从农林牧渔产业从业人员比例来看,全国及地区层面的条件生态诅咒假设均不成立,东部地区生态祝福效应显著;③ 从农林牧渔产业产值比例来看,全国及地区层面的条件生态诅咒假设均显著成立。自然生态系统为提高区域人均生态福祉、吸纳富余劳动力就业等贡献显著,但促进地区经济社会发展还需不断降低农林牧渔产业产值在国民经济中的比例。未来,中国应当进一步实施因地制宜的生态保护措施以规避生态诅咒,并通过因时制宜的经济社会发展规划促进生态祝福效应。

关键词: 经济地理学, 实证检验, 诅咒效应, 生态福祉, 中国大陆

Abstract:

Quantitative description of the relation between ecosystem service and human socio-economic development is one of the most critical contents in the fields of ecology, geography and economics. In this paper, based on ecosystem service theory, the concept, the characterization and evaluation methods of ecological well-being were defined. Referencing to resource curse theory, the hypothesis of ecological benediction, absolute ecological curse and conditional ecological curse were proposed from the viewpoint of generalized ecological well-being. On this basis, an empirical analysis of ecological benediction effect and ecological curse effect of all provinces in the mainland of China during 2001 and 2013 was conducted by using related data from national and regional levels. The results showed that from the per capita ecological well-being, the hypothesis of absolute ecological curse was false on the national scale. Ecological benediction effect in the eastern and western regions was remarkable. Driven by the growth of these factors such as the proportion of foreign investment, the proportion of tertiary industry, and the proportion of regional population, the increase of per capita ecological well-being in the eastern and western regions improved the development of regional economy and society. Considering the proportion of employees in the four sectors of farming, forestry, husbandry and fishery, the hypothesis of conditional ecological curse was false on both national and regional scales. Ecological benediction effect in the eastern region was remarkable. With the increase of the proportion of employees from farming, forestry, husbandry and fishery sectors, the development speed of regional economy and society increased by 36.35%. Considering the proportion of production values of farming, forestry, husbandry and fishery, the hypothesis of conditional ecological curse was true on both national and regional scales. Under the joint influence of urbanization status and road capacity, one doubling of the proportion of production values of farming, forestry, husbandry and fishery would lead to a decrease of 45.63% in the national socio-economic development speed. Moreover, under the joint effect of per capita GDP and other factors, one doubling of the proportion of production values of the four sectors would result in a decrease of 30.64%-33.49% in the regional socio-economic development. From the viewpoint of generalized human well-being, natural ecosystem contributed greatly to the improvement of regional ecological well-being per capita, surplus labor force employment and so on. Meanwhile, it was necessary to reduce the proportion of production values of the four sectors in the national economy to promote regional socio-economic development. The regions and departments concerned should take effective measures to avoid ecological curse effect by proper ecological conservation activities, and enhance ecological benediction effect with regional socio-economic development planning in the proper temporal scale.

Key words: Economic Geography, empirical test, curse effect, ecological well-being, mainland of China