地理研究 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (7): 1314-1328.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201607008

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

国际码头企业的珠江三角洲进入路径与空间网络

程佳佳1,2(), 王成金1(), 何嘉明3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院 综合地理信息研究中心,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-27 修回日期:2016-04-03 出版日期:2016-07-30 发布日期:2016-07-26
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:程佳佳(1992- ),女,广东揭阳人,硕士,主要研究方向为交通地理与区域发展。E-mail: chengjj.14s@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41171108,41571113);战略咨询院2015年重大咨询项目(Y02015001);邓普顿新兴市场基金;邓普顿亚洲增长基金;新加坡政府投资集团、马来西亚员工公积金局、加拿大养老计划管理公司、邓普顿新兴市场基金、邓普顿亚洲增长基金、香港全通集团;邓普顿新兴市场基金;邓普顿亚洲增长基金

Expansion of international terminal operators in the Pearl River Delta: Temporal path, spatial network and influence

Jiajia CHENG1,2(), Chengjin WANG1(), Jiaming HE3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Center of Integrated Geographic Information Analysis, School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2015-11-27 Revised:2016-04-03 Online:2016-07-30 Published:2016-07-26

摘要:

长期以来,港口竞争主要发生在不同港口之间,随着港口管制的放松,许多港口陆续引入私营资本,促进了港口竞争的发展变化,并在理论上形成了新的空间模式。珠江三角洲是中国港口建设最早引入外资和码头市场竞争最激烈的地区,也是中国港口管制放松和外向经济最活跃的地区。在阐述国内外研究现状的基础上,以珠江三角洲集装箱港口群为研究对象,分析国际码头企业进入珠江三角洲的时间路径,包括企业结构、企业数量与股权变化、港口数量等,总结其时间进入规律;基于空间视角,刻画国际码头企业的码头网络,重点包括参股港口分布、装卸能力演化、各企业投资差异等,考察国际码头企业的码头网络特征和扩张规律,并从港口建设经营、港口竞争码头化两方面分析国际码头企业进入对珠江三角洲港口发展的影响。研究表明,国际码头企业的进入路径受改革开放及政策的影响较大,目前已在珠三角码头市场中占据主导地位,集中投资大型港口,呈现先投资枢纽港再进入中小型港口的市场模式;国际码头企业的进入加剧了港口内部码头或泊位利益主体分化而形成港口内部竞争,促使港口竞争形成码头化态势,和记黄埔、招商国际、珠江船务等分别形成了规模庞大的码头网络,相互之间形成竞争和合作格局。研究丰富了港口地理学的研究视角,充实了港口研究的理论范畴。

关键词: 国际码头企业, 珠江三角洲, 市场进入, 时间路径, 空间网络

Abstract:

For a long period of time, port competition mainly existed between different individual ports. With the deregulation of port management, private capitals has been flowing into some ports, leading to the internal port competition and its development. The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region was the first to introduce foreign capitals and also experienced the most fierce market competition in its port construction process. It was also the pioneer for port deregulation in China, which strongly contributed to its prosperous export-oriented economy. On the basis of the related research at home and abroad, this paper chose thirty container ports in the PRD region as the study subjects. From the perspective of terminal operators, the authors analyzed the temporal entering path of the international terminal operators (ITOs), including structure, amount, joint terminal ventures and shareholdings of the entered ITOs and the timeline of the invested ports. Then, the authors depicted the container terminal network of the ITOs in the PRD region, especially the distribution of the invested ports and terminals, the evolution of handling capacities of the joint terminals and spatial disparities between different operators, in order to study the terminal networks' characteristics and expansion rule of the ITOs. Finally, the influence of the ITOs on PRD's port development was further explored, from the views of port construction, port management and terminalization of port competition. The research shows that: (1) the temporal entering path of the ITOs is greatly influenced by policies, reform and opening up, and ITOs are holding a dominant position in the PRD port market now, by means of substantial investments on large-scale ports. These operators initially invested in hub ports, and in the following stage invested in small and medium-sized ports for further expansion; (2) the entry of the ITOs, on one hand, helps to stabilize the supply and provide funding for port construction, and on the other hand, accelerates the differentiation of ownership and beneficiaries in terminals or berths within one port, which intensifies the internal port competition and leads to the terminalization of port competition; (3) Hutchison Port Holdings (HPH), China Merchants Holdings (CMG) and Chu Kong Shipping Development Group Company Limited (CKSG) have established their own huge-scale terminal spatial network respectively, leading to the competition and cooperation pattern among each other. This study enriches not only the research perspective of port geography but also the basic categories of port research.

Key words: international terminal operato, Pearl River Delta, market entry, temporal path, spatial network