地理研究 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (8): 1510-1524.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201608009

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

社会—生态系统体制转换视角下的黄土高原乡村转型发展——以长武县洪家镇为例

王子侨1(), 石翠萍1, 蒋维2, 杨新军1()   

  1. 1. 西北大学城市与环境学院,西安 710127
    2. 川北幼儿师范高等专科学校,广元 628017
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-03 修回日期:2016-05-22 出版日期:2016-08-30 发布日期:2016-08-29
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王子侨(1989- ),男,陕西西安人,博士研究生,研究方向为乡村发展与社会—生态系统脆弱性及社区恢复力。E-mail: wangzq212@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571163)

Rural transformation from the perspective of regime shifts of socio-ecological systems in the Loess Plateau:A case study of Hongjia town in Changwu county, China

Ziqiao WANG1(), Cuiping SHI1, Wei JIANG2, Xinjun YANG1()   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
    2. North Sichuan College of Preschool Teacher Education, Guangyuan 628017, Sichuan, China
  • Received:2016-03-03 Revised:2016-05-22 Online:2016-08-30 Published:2016-08-29

摘要:

社会—生态系统理论为中国乡村转型发展的过程格局研究提供了新的分析思路,运用体制转化理论及其研究框架,选取陕西省长武县洪家镇为案例地,从村域尺度社会—生态系统体制变化为切入点揭示了当地乡村转型的背景和环境因素,重点探讨农户尺度的社会—生态系统体制转换影响因素及其稳健性,从微观角度审视西北乡村转型的基本特征,主要结论包括:① 当地乡村社会—生态系统体制已由传统农业体制转变为新型农业体制,其中某些家庭体制正在向非农体制转换。② 家庭特征是农户体制发生转换的客观条件;耕地质量、劳动力数量与质量是农户体制转换的内在动因;户主年龄、文化水平及社会网络是农户体制转换方向的决定因素。③ 农户家庭体制转换呈现出发散和聚合并存现象,且不同家庭的稳健性存在明显差异,基于种植业结构和收入对农户家庭进行分类,不同类型农户家庭体制的稳健型依次表现为其:苹果非农均衡型>非农收入主导型>粮食非农均衡型>苹果收入主导型>传统收入主导型。最后基于农户视角对乡村转型的微观研究进行探讨,并提出后续深化研究的方向和实践启示。

关键词: 乡村转型, 社会—生态系统(SESs), 体制转换, 农户, 黄土高原

Abstract:

Socio-ecological systems theory offers a conceptual model that has not been applied in analyses of the process and evolution of rural transformation in China. Drawing on a system transformation theoretical framework, we selected the town of Hongjia in Changwu County as a case study to explore the context of local rural transformation and associated environmental factors. We examined village-level socio-ecological system changes, with a particular emphasis on influencing factors associated with regime shifts and the robustness of rural socio-ecological systems. Our findings were as follows. First, the local rural socio-ecological regime has evolved through the transformation of the traditional agricultural regime, with some of the household regimes shifting to a non-agricultural system. Second, family characteristics constitute the objective conditions for the transformation of household regimes. Internal factors driving the transformation process include: the quantity of the household's cultivated land as well as labor quality and quality. Furthermore, householders' ages, culture level, and social networks are major determinants of the direction of transformation of the household regime. Third, the shift in household regimes presents a scattered and aggregated pattern, with evident differences in the robustness of households. Rural households are classified according to the planting structure and households' incomes. Differences in the robustness of different types of rural households can, in turn, be expressed as follows: apple+non-agricultural production > non-agricultural production > grain + non-agricultural production > apple production > agricultural production. Lastly, we discuss the findings of this microstudy of rural transformation, and its practical implications, proposing future research directions.

Key words: rural transformation, socio-ecological systems, regime shift, rural household, Loess Plateau