地理研究 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (8): 1547-1560.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201608012

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

1935-2010年中国人口分布空间格局及其演变特征

杨强1(), 李丽2(), 王运动1, 王心源2, 陆应诚3   

  1. 1. 南京林业大学土木工程学院,南京 210037
    2. 中国科学院遥感与数字地球研究所,北京 100094
    3. 南京大学国际地球系统科学研究所,南京 210046
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-01 修回日期:2016-05-03 出版日期:2016-08-30 发布日期:2016-08-29
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨强(1982- ),男,河南许昌人,博士,讲师,主要从事环境遥感与全球变化研究。E-mail: qiangyang@njfu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院数字地球重点实验室开放基金项目(2014LDE013);国家自然科学基金项目(41271427,41371014);江苏省测绘地理信息科研项目(JSCHKY201507)

Spatial distribution pattern of population and characteristics of its evolution in China during 1935-2010

Qiang YANG1(), Li Li2(), Yundong WANG1, Xinyuan WANG2, Yingcheng LU3   

  1. 1. College of Civil Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
    2. Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, CAS, Beijing 10094, China
    3. International Institute for Earth System Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, China
  • Received:2016-02-01 Revised:2016-05-03 Online:2016-08-30 Published:2016-08-29

摘要:

在自然地理和社会经济等因素影响作用下,中国东西部人口分布与社会经济长期处于不平衡的发展态势。采用人口分布结构指数、基尼系数、重心迁移、空间自相关等方法,以中国1935-2010年6期人口普查县级统计数据为数据源,实现人口密度分界线的空间刻画和中国人口分布的时空分析。结果表明:受社会历史、自然环境和经济条件的影响,中国人口空间分布的时空演变特征差异相对明显;尽管人口分布的均衡性发展态势不断增强,但总体空间格局并未发生明显的改变;胡焕庸线至今仍能很好地概括中国人口东南地狭人稠、西北地广人稀的空间格局,但该线西侧的甘肃、宁夏、内蒙古等人口密度超过50人/km2的区域面积呈现增长的趋势,且持续向西北扩张。

关键词: 胡焕庸线, 人口分布, 空间格局, 时空演变

Abstract:

Spatial distribution pattern of population and its evolution with the change of time and space is a hotspot and core content for human geography. Under the influence of complex environmental factors like geology, geography, ecology, and resources, population and social economy in western and eastern regions of China exhibit a lopsided development pattern over a long period of time. With the proposed New Urbanization Construction and the Belt and Road strategy, the social economy in western China, or even the whole China, has opportunities and space for development. Under the circumstance, this study on population distribution in different periods and areas in China will provide basis and spatial cognition for the development of relevant sustainable development policies and measures. Population data is acquired from the national statistical yearbook and population census data in different periods, and further built up spatial joint with the county administrative boundary in different periods. The population density is calculated based on the population data and regional area, and revised according to the adjacent years. With the support of geographical information technology, the inverse distance weighted method is used for spatial interpolation of the population density. Because of spatial density and distribution for the sampling points, average population density replaced interpolated results in western China. The study depicts the east-west dividing line of population density and discrepancies of population density in different periods and areas during 1935-2010 using county-level Chinese census data from six stages (1935, 1964, 1982, 1990, 2000, and 2010) with the index of population distribution structure, the Gini coefficient of population density, the movement trace of population center of gravity, and spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results showcase the dividing line of population density and discrepancies of population density in different periods and areas during 1935-2010. Because of the influence of history, environment and economy, the characteristics of population distribution evolution in different periods and areas keep changing in this study. It is known to all that the people are mainly distributed in Southeast China with little area, and population is much sparse in Northwest China, but with the larger area. Even though the population distribution trend of balanced development keeps increasing, the spatial distribution pattern of population has not changed obviously in the whole nation. The Hu Huanyong Line can still be a good summary of the characteristics of population distribution in China. To the west of the Hu Huanyong Line, population density in several provinces keep increasing during 1935-2010, such as Gansu Province and Ningxia and Inner Mongolia autonomous regions. The number of areas with population density with more than 50 people per kilometer increases greatly in the three provincial units. Moreover, the trend transferred to northwest China during 1935-2010. At the same time, the population distribution has obvious spatial autocorrelations in China in the last 80 years. In spatial scale, the hot and cold spots for population distribution have obvious aggregation, with great spatial difference in the whole China. The High-High regions are mainly distributed in South and East China where population density is very high and economy is developing repidly. The Low-Low regions are distributed on both sides of Hu Huanyong Line, namely, Southwest China and Northwest China. The natural environment and living standard are very poor in these regions. The spatial difference of population distribution in the High-Low and Low-High regions is very obvious because of local natural geographical environment and economic development, and these regions are usually distributed around the High-High and Low-Low regions. Thus, it is possible to coordinate the development between eastern and western China. We should understand the connotation and denotation of the question put forward by Premier Li Keqiang based on the natural law and economic development strategy of China in the new period. Meanwhile, people-oriented awareness should be further set up, and the New Urbanization Construction can be used to raise urbanization levels in China, thus improving the standard of living and environment.

Key words: Hu Huanyong Line, population distribution, spatial pattern, evolution with the change of time and space