地理研究 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (9): 1601-1614.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201609001

• 观点与争鸣 •    下一篇

中国低碳生态新城新区:现状、问题及对策

方创琳1(), 王少剑2(), 王洋3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州 510275
    3. 广州地理研究所,广州 510070
  • 收稿日期:2016-02-04 修回日期:2016-07-01 出版日期:2016-09-10 发布日期:2016-09-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:方创琳(1966- ),男,甘肃庆阳人,研究员,主要从事城市发展与规划研究。E-mail: fangcl@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重大项目(41590840,41590842)

Current situation and countermeasures of Chinese low-carbon eco-metro area development

Chuanglin FANG1(), Shaojian WANG2(), Yang WANG3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Geo-simulation, School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    3. Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangzhou 510070, China
  • Received:2016-02-04 Revised:2016-07-01 Online:2016-09-10 Published:2016-09-10

摘要:

低碳生态新城新区作为城市空间可持续扩张的一种新形式和新城新区建设的重要主导方向,正在把中国新城新区建设推向一个理性发展的新阶段。通过近15年来的发展与建设,中国低碳生态城市建设从概念转向示范试点,数量不断增多;低碳生态工业园区和社区建设取得示范成效;真正意义上的低碳生态新城新区建设尚处萌芽阶段;低碳生态新城新区建设推动低碳生态产业正在成为城市新的经济增长点。但低碳新城新区建设中也暴露出一系列新问题,表现为部分新城新区以低碳生态之名变相圈地造城,盲投盲建加大负债风险;部分新城新区挂着低碳生态之牌,发展着“低端不低碳”和“生产不生态”的产业;选址普遍存在重“大”轻“小”,重“新”轻“旧”的现象;建设缺失通用的衡量标准与权威性强的通用指标体系。针对这些问题,未来要加强智慧低碳生态技术的集成应用,建设一批产城融合的示范区;大力发展智慧低碳生态产业,提升新城新区建设的智慧化、生态化和低碳化;构建一套通用性强的国家建设标准及指标体系;推行融智、融商、融资的“三融模式”,引进民间资本;推行产业规划、空间规划和技术规划的“三规合一”模式,以科学的低碳生态新城新区规划指导新城新区健康发展。

关键词: 低碳城市, 低碳新城新区, 生态城市, 生态新城新区, 低碳生态新城新区, 中国

Abstract:

As a new pattern of urban spatial expansion with sustainability and an important orientation of new city construction, low-carbon eco-metro area is leading China's new city construction movement towards a more rational stage. After about 15 years' development and construction, low-carbon eco-city construction, featured with low-carbon eco-industrial park and community, stepped from conceptual design to demonstration pilot with an increasing number covering almost 60% cities in China, and some achievements have been reached, which promotes the low-carbon eco-industry that is becoming the brand-new source of economic growth. However, in its true sense, the number of built low-carbon eco-metro area is small, and it is still in its infancy; meanwhile, there are a series of problems during the construction process. For example, some cities' low-carbon eco-metro area construction is just a disguised form of enclosure movement, and the blind investment and construction exacerbates local indebtedness; some low-carbon eco-metro areas establish the "low-end non-carbon" or "non-ecological production" industry within the park; the location of low-carbon eco-metro areas are often in big and new regions; and the construction of location of low-carbon eco-metro areas lacks a general and authoritative standards and index system. Therefore, in the coming years, our low-carbon eco-metro area construction should insist on the principle of low-carbon and ecological development, strictly control the traditional construction pattern and foster the development of low-carbon eco-metro area. At the same time, a variety of studies and measurements should be taken to support this plan. For instance, the integrated application of smart low-carbon eco-technology must be strengthened to build groups of national low-carbon and ecological demonstration areas with integrated industry and community; the smart, ecological and low-carbon features must be enhanced by establishing smart, ecological and low-carbon industries; a series of general and practical national low-carbon eco-metro area construction standards and comprehensive assessment and evaluation index system must be set up; the role of market mechanism needs to be emphasized to foster the integration of intelligence, business and capital and introduce private investment into the low-carbon eco-metro area construction; preferential policies such as land use, taxation, loans and ecological compensation should be implemented to support the low-carbon eco-metro areas to be brought into state-level new areas. Besides, the scientific integrated planning model of industry planning, spatial planning and technology planning should be taken as the guide to the healthy development of new urban area construction.

Key words: low-carbon city, low-carbon new urban area, eco-city, ecological new urban area, low-carbon eco-metro area, China