地理研究 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (9): 1767-1782.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201609014

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

上海港港区区位与功能演变及动力机制

张梦天1,2(), 王成金1(), 王成龙1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-19 修回日期:2016-05-26 出版日期:2016-09-10 发布日期:2016-09-23
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张梦天(1990- ),女,吉林长春人,硕士,研究方向为交通地理。E-mail: zmt1020good@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571113)

Regional evolution, function evolvement and driving mechanism in the development of Shanghai port

Mengtian ZHANG1,2(), Chengjin WANG1(), Chenglong WANG1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2016-01-19 Revised:2016-05-26 Online:2016-09-10 Published:2016-09-23

摘要:

随着全球经济一体化,港口发展迈入了新阶段。上海港是世界大港,其发展、演变过程既具备一般性规律又不乏自身特色,对揭示单体港口的功能拓展和空间扩张具有积极意义。论述了上海港的港区区位和功能演变过程,并总结了港口的空间演化轨迹、功能拓展路径等规律,创建上海港演变模式,最后考察上海港区位与功能演变的动力机制。研究发现:港口港区区位遵循了从支流向门户、从内河向深海、从单一区位向多体系的演变规律,功能演变形成了从服务于村镇向国际区域、从渔港向综合港的演变过程,形成“河流单港区阶段→河流双向延伸阶段→工业化岸线拓展阶段→集装箱化离岸外迁阶段”的上海港演变模式。鸦片战争之前,上海港因长江流域门户港变迁规模和功能不断提升;开埠后,西方介入使港口空间和功能进一步扩展;1949年以来,工业化导致上海港向多区位系统和多元化功能演进;21世纪以来,技术进步、全球化及政策制度等因素促使老港区外迁和功能升级。研究丰富了港口地理学的理论研究,为单体港口的优化与枢纽建设提供了借鉴。

关键词: 港区, 区位变迁, 功能演变, 模式, 动力机制, 上海

Abstract:

With the rapid development of global economic integration, the port development is embarking on a new stage. Shanghai port is one of the world's great harbors, and its development not only follows general rules but also accords with special regularity. So, it is pivotal to fully study the function evolvement and spatial expansion of the single port. Based on careful collection and collation of historical information and data, this paper reviews the regional evolution and function evolvement of Shanghai port. Additionally, we build the evolution model of Shanghai port on the foundation of summarizing rules of spatial evolution and function expansion of ports. At last, the dynamic mechanism of regional evolution and function evolvement of Shanghai port has been revealed. Putting all factors such as river, port location, port system, relationship between port and hinterland, port function into consideration, this paper summarizes the spatial evolution, function development and the relationship between port and city of Shanghai. Furthermore, dynamic mechanism of ports evolution has been discussed. The study found that Shanghai port location followed the evolution law which is from tributaries to the port, from inland to the depths of sea and from a single location to a multiple system. The function evolution experiences stages from serving for a village to the international area, from a fishing port to a multi-purpose port, from a small node of the Yangtze River Delta port system to the international shipping center. Before the first Opium War, the function of Shanghai port was constantly upgraded because of portal port location change of the Yangtze River. After opening-up, the size and function of the port developed due to the influence of western intervention. After 1949, industrialization played a pivotal role in spatial expansion and multi-function changes of Shanghai port. Entering the new century, various factors such as technological progress, natural conditions, globalization and the optimization of city functions have promoted external migration of old port area and function upgrading. This study broads the field of theoretical research in port geography and provides essential supports for the construction of Chinese hub ports and development of single ports.

Key words: port, location changes, functional evolution, pattern, dynamic mechanism, Shanghai