地理研究 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (9): 1783-1798.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201609015

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    

中国城市舒适性的空间格局与影响因素

喻忠磊1(), 唐于渝1,2, 张华1(), 梁进社1   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875
    2. 重庆国际投资咨询集团有限公司,重庆 400023
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-12 修回日期:2016-05-11 出版日期:2016-09-10 发布日期:2016-09-23
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:喻忠磊(1987- ),男,河南信阳人,博士研究生,研究方向为经济地理、人地关系与区域可持续发展。E-mail: yzlei87@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    北京高等学校青年英才计划项目(YETP0290)

Spatial pattern and driving factors of Chinese urban amenities

Zhonglei YU1(), Yuyu TANG1,2, Hua ZHANG1(), Jinshe LIANG1   

  1. 1. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2. Chongqing International Investment Consultation Group Co., Ltd, Chongqing 400023, China
  • Received:2016-01-12 Revised:2016-05-11 Online:2016-09-10 Published:2016-09-23

摘要:

舒适性在城市发展中的作用日益重要。基于城市舒适性内涵构建指标体系,利用均方差决策法测算中国286个地级城市的舒适性水平,并探讨其地域分异特征与影响因素。研究发现:中国城市舒适性总体上处于中等水平,但级差化特征明显;城市舒适性水平呈现明显的东中西地带性梯度,东部高,中西部低;集群化分布特征突出,京津冀、山东半岛、长三角和珠三角为高值集聚区,低和较低等级舒适性城市趋于中西部山区、省际边缘区集中分布,形成四个连片低值集聚区。地理区位通过自然环境的地带性分异和东中西经济梯度主导着中国城市舒适性水平的整体空间格局;经济发展水平对城市舒适性水平发挥着决定性作用,第三产业产值占比、旅游业接待量分别通过供给和需求作用于舒适性;公共部门就业人数对中国舒适性水平的影响为负,与预期方向不符,表明大城市公共服务供给仍相对不足。

关键词: 城市舒适性, 综合测评, 空间格局, 影响机制, 均方差, 中国

Abstract:

With the coming of post-industrial society, the ability of cities to attract labors and population is of fundamental importance for achieving a successful local and regional economic development. The amenity plays a key role in the ability of cities to compete for labors and future residents. Based on the notion of urban amenity, we establish an indicator system, and use it to evaluate Chinese urban amenity in 2010 through the method of mean-squared deviation weight decision. In our study, the urban amenities are divided into five level, namely, the highest, higher, moderate, lower and lowest. Then, we analyze the features of spatial distribution of Chinese cities with different urban amenity levels. We use the stepwise linear multi-variation regression to identify the key factors driving urban amenity, and present their impact mechanism of the spatial disparity of urban amenity. The results show that the overall amenity of Chinese cities is at moderate level, and there is relative significant disparity among cities with different amenity levels. There exist evident territorial disparities across the eastern-central-western region, but they are not evident in north-south direction. The urban amenity in eastern region is higher than that of central and western regions, and the urban amenity of the central is higher than that of the western. We also find that the urban amenities present a remarkable feature of clustered distribution. The cities with the highest and higher amenity levels are mainly distributed in the urban agglomerations along Chinese eastern coastal zone. The cities with moderate level are mainly distributed around provincial capitals of the central region and the area away from provincial capitals of the eastern region, while the lower and lowest levels tend to be agglomerated in mountainous areas and provincial border-regions in the central and western regions. There form three big concentration areas with higher amenities, in particular, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region, Shandong Peninsula, Yangtze River Delta, and also three small concentration areas on the west coast of the Taiwan Straits, the Pearl River Delta and Kunming metropolitan region. While there also form three concentration areas with low level in mountainous areas in central and western regions. In addition, the results from the stepwise linear multi-variation regression show that the key factors affecting the spatial disparities of urban amenities cover the city location (descripted by the distance to Chinese coastline, and distance to the geographical line dividing China's south and north), per capita disposable income, scale of tourists, per capita GDP, proportion of productive value of service industry, and workers in public sectors. Generally speaking, the spatial pattern of urban amenity level is dominated by geographical location through the horizontal zonality disparity of natural environment and east-west gradient of economic development, which is also influenced by amenity demand and supply determined by urban economic development.

Key words: urban amenity, evaluation, spatial pattern, driving factors, mean-square deviation, China