地理研究 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (11): 2025-2040.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201611003

• 学科动态 • 上一篇    下一篇

环境损害鉴定评估的土壤基线确定方法

龚雪刚1,2(), 廖晓勇1(), 阎秀兰1, 李尤1,2, 杨坤1,2, 赵丹1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,环境损害与污染修复北京市重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-24 修回日期:2016-07-28 出版日期:2016-11-25 发布日期:2016-11-24
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:龚雪刚(1990- ),男,江西高安人,博士研究生,主要从事环境污染损害鉴定评估研究。E-mail:gongxg.13s@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271339);环境保护部A类财政项目(2015A015)

Measures on soil baseline determination for environmental damage identification and assessment

Xuegang GONG1,2(), Xiaoyong LIAO1(), Xiulan YAN1, You LI1,2, Kun YANG1,2, Dan ZHAO1   

  1. 1. Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Damage Assessment and Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2016-03-24 Revised:2016-07-28 Online:2016-11-25 Published:2016-11-24

摘要:

近年来,国内环境污染事故频繁发生,由此引发的环境损害问题日益严重。环境损害鉴定评估是中国推行的一项应对环境污染损害的重要环保举措,而基线则是确定损害的关键。基线确定作为损害评估与修复的重要组成部分,是科学评估的关键技术环节和重要前提,也是中国开展环境损害鉴定评估亟待解决的问题。总结国际上常用的4种基线确定方法:即历史数据法、参考点位法、环境标准法和模型推算法的优缺点及应用情况,探讨不同基线确定方法的具体工作步骤,并结合中国土壤环境研究工作积累与进展,提出中国土壤基线确定基本原则和推荐“4步法”工作程序,对中国开展土壤环境损害鉴定评估工作具有重要的理论意义和科学指导作用。

关键词: 土壤污染, 环境损害, 鉴定评估, 基线, 规范

Abstract:

In recent years, environmental pollution accidents occur frequently in China, which gives rise to serious environmental damage. Environmental damage identification and assessment is one of the most important environmental protection measures to cope with damage, while baseline is the key to determine the nature and extent of injuries or damages. As a crucial component of environmental damage assessment and restoration activity, baseline determination is the key technology link of scientific assessment and the important premise for a fair damage assessment, which can be used for the environmental damage identification and assessment in China. There are four widely used methods that can determine the baseline of environment or resources in developed countries: historical data, reference area data, environmental standards and models. Firstly, this paper analyzed these methods systematically, and summarized their advantages and disadvantages based on the theory and case studies. Then it discussed the specific steps of all kinds of baseline determination methods. Furthermore, we summed up knowledge on soil or soil environment, which is closely related to soil baseline determination in China, and proposed the basic principles of soil baseline determination for environmental damage identification and assessment. In conclusion, we recommended the "4 steps" operating procedure for determining soil baseline, which provides a valuable academic perspective and gives a scientific guidance for soil environmental damage identification and assessment in China.

Key words: soil pollution, environmental damage, identification and assessment, baseline, criterion