地理研究 ›› 2016, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (12): 2249-2260.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201612005

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国城镇化与非农化的空间分异、相互关系和形成机制

曹广忠1(), 马嘉文2   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
    2. 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院, 深圳 518055
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-20 修回日期:2016-09-09 出版日期:2016-12-23 发布日期:2017-01-05
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:曹广忠(1969- ),男,山东莘县人,博士,副教授,研究方向为城市地理与城乡规划。E-mail:caogzh@urban.pku.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371166)

Spatial pattern, mutual relationship and driving forces of China's urbanization and non-agriculturalization

Guangzhong CAO1(), Jiawen MA2   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. School of Urban Planning and Design, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China
  • Received:2016-06-20 Revised:2016-09-09 Online:2016-12-23 Published:2017-01-05

摘要:

区域就业非农化和人口城镇化是相互关联且进程相对一致的过程,但由于发展背景和影响机制的不同,二者的关系有可能在空间和时间上呈现一定的差异性。基于第五、第六次人口普查资料,分析了中国人口城镇化与就业非农化水平和进程的空间格局、相互关系及其形成机制。研究发现:城镇化和非农化水平的分布和演变都具有明显的行政指向特征和地带分异特征,差异化的空间集散态势下,在不同地区二者形成了多样化的相互关系,但总体上相互促进、共同发展。在城镇化初期和中期阶段,非农化适当超前或同步于城镇化有利于促进城镇化水平的提高。主导驱动因素不一致是城镇化和非农化空间差异和相互关系形成的基础,要素投入引致的经济增长直接促进就业非农化进程,但人口城镇化则更多受到政府行为的影响;要素投入产出效率和政府政策实施力度的不同也导致这一机制过程呈现出鲜明的区域特征。

关键词: 人口城镇化, 就业非农化, 空间格局, 相互关系, 动力机制

Abstract:

The relationship between urbanization and non-agriculturalization in China - a developing country in the transformation period - has its own specialty. This paper, based on national censuses in 2000 and 2010 respectively, analyses the spatial pattern, mutual relationship and driving forces of the urbanization and non-agriculturalization in China. The results indicate that: (1) Both rate of urbanization and non-agriculturalization vary significantly with respect to administrative level and zonal distinction. Generally, provincial cities and prefectural cities have a better performance in the coordination between urbanization and industrialization, while county-level cities and ordinary counties acquire a high promotion prospect for urbanization and non-agriculturalization. Central China has constantly kept urbanization and non-agriculturalization in concert and gradually become the main area that tends to play a major role in the future urbanization and non-agriculturalization in China. (2) The spatial distributions of urbanization rate and non-agriculturalization rate exhibit different pictures in 2010 and divergent dynamics between 2000 and 2010. Highly urbanized area shows the picture of an extensive dispersion with localized concentrations in 2010, while the highly non-agriculturalized covers a continuous area including most parts of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong. A similar scenery can be observed in their changing patterns with higher growth in urbanization scattering around the country in contrast with a continuous increase in non-agriculturalization. (3) Although differences mentioned above in the spatial distribution between urbanization and non-agriculturalization have contributed to various mutual relationships, the mutual promotion is the main process during the past decade. The status of under-urbanization or over-urbanization is periodical and temporary. (4) While the urbanization and non-agriculturalization processes in China have been propelled by the state and the market congruently, these two forces have impacted the processes to different degrees, which to some extent can explain the variations in the spatial pattern and the mutual relationships of China's urbanization and non-agriculturalization. Moreover, the mechanism of driving forces presents regional distinction due to regional difference in the efficiency of input and output and the power of policy implementation.

Key words: urbanization, non-agriculturalization, spatial pattern, mutual relationship, driving forces