地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (2): 307-320.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201702009

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国国家级保护地空间分布特征及对国家公园布局建设的启示

朱里莹1(), 徐姗2,3, 兰思仁1,4()   

  1. 1. 福建农林大学园林学院,福州 350002
    2. 中国城市科学研究会,北京 100044
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    4. 福建省社会科学研究基地生态文明研究中心,福州 350002
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-25 修回日期:2016-12-24 出版日期:2017-02-20 发布日期:2017-03-07
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:朱里莹(1987- ),福建浦城人,讲师,博士研究生,研究方向为风景园林规划与设计。E-mail:fjndzly@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAD15B00);福建省教育厅科技项目(JA15168)

Spatial distribution characteristics of national protectedareas and the inspirations to national parks in China

Liying ZHU1(), Shan XU2,3, Siren LAN1,4()   

  1. 1. College of Landscape Architecture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
    2. China Society for Urban Studies, Beijing 100044, China
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    4. Fujian Ecological Civilization Research Institute, Fuzhou 350002, China
  • Received:2016-09-25 Revised:2016-12-24 Online:2017-02-20 Published:2017-03-07

摘要:

国家级保护地是中国国家公园建设的重要基础,在全国尺度下解析其空间分布特征有利于构建布局合理的国家公园体系。借助ArcGIS等空间分析工具,结合中国自然地理表征和文化地理表征,对全国现有12类共计3093处国家级保护地进行空间分布特征分析,结果表明:① 国家级保护地总体呈凝聚型分布;② 涵盖了全部的文化副区以及93%的自然区;③ 高密度集中在地势平坦、气候宜人、水资源丰富、植被景观差异性大、土壤肥沃、文化历史悠久和交通可达性高的华东和华中地区;④ 根据保护地与区域经济发展水平可以将全国各省份划分为生态本底型、协同共进型、经济进取型和消极滞后型;⑤ 根据保护地和人口分布的关系可以将各省份划分为生态干扰型、协同共建型、生态关注型和生态消极型。形成有关国家公园布局的建议如下:① 寻求国家公园空间布局的均衡发展;② 将国家公园划分为升级模式、整合模式和新建模式,以完善空间覆盖网络;③ 向保护地分布较稀疏、交通可达性较低,人为破坏较少的西部地区倾斜,践行保护理念;④ 根据各省份所属类型设置国家公园试点先行省份。

关键词: 国家级保护地, 空间分布, 自然地理, 文化地理, 国家公园

Abstract:

Different modes of national protected areas are important basics of Chinese national parks. Analyzing the spatial distribution characteristics of national protected areas in China can help build a rational national park system. Given the natural, cultural, and geographical diversity, this article aimed to assess the spatial distribution characteristics of 12 in 3093 national protected areas in China, using ArcGIS and various quantitative statistical methods, including Nearest Neighbor Index (NNI) and cost-weighted distance method. By the above methods, spatial distribution characteristics of national protected areas in China were investigated nationally. The results were as follows. Firstly, national protected areas present an overall condensed state. Secondly, national protected areas covered all the cultural regions, sub-regions, and zones. All the natural regions, 90% sub-regions, and 93% zones were covered as well, which indicated that despite the high coverage, there are still important geographic zonings with no protected areas. Thirdly, existing national protected areas are highly clustered in the eastern and central regions which are flats and simultaneously are rich in water and plants with fertile soil. In addition, the main elements of cultural geography, such as cultural zonings, transportation accessibility, development of regional economy and population distribution, has close relationships with the number of protected areas. Fourthly, according to the relationship between distribution of national protected areas and development of regional economy, the provincial units in China could be divided into 4 groups. Fifthly, according to the relationship between distribution of national protected areas and population distribution, the provincial units in China can be classified into 4 groups as well. Recommended areas in the Chinese national park system were as follows: (1) discontinuation of the existing condensed state to achieve a balanced spatial pattern; (2) division of national parks into upgraded, integrated, and new modes to form a spatial framework; (3) national parks should be established in the western region with less protected areas, lower transportation accessibility and less human destruction; (4) the provinces with higher enthusiasm to ecology should be made pilot units.

Key words: national protected areas, spatial distribution, natural geography, cultural geography, national park