地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (2): 321-335.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201702010

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

旅游地空间竞争规律探究——以湖南省为例

许春晓1(), 王甫园2,3,4(), 王开泳2,3, 李萍2,3,4   

  1. 1. 湖南师范大学旅游学院,长沙 410081
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    4. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2016-08-22 修回日期:2016-12-12 出版日期:2017-02-20 发布日期:2017-03-07
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:许春晓(1962- ),男,湖南新化人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为旅游开发理论。E-mail:chunxiao2682@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    湖南省教育厅高校科研项目(15A123);国家自然科学基金项目(41371178)

Exploring destination spatial competition rules:A case study of Hunan province

Chunxiao XU1(), Fuyuan WANG2,3,4(), Kaiyong WANG2,3, Ping LI2,3,4   

  1. Tourism College, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2016-08-22 Revised:2016-12-12 Online:2017-02-20 Published:2017-03-07

摘要:

旅游地空间竞争是旅游地理学的经典课题,研究意义重大。按照理论演绎—假设提出—实证检验的范式,从旅游者目的地选择时空行为视角重新审视和辨析旅游地空间竞争现象,并据此提出相关理论假设,再以湖南省为研究区域,采用问卷调查获得市场对目的地选择的基础数据,对假设进行检验,得出旅游地空间竞争的4项基本规律:① 旅游地竞争优势等级处于不均衡的动态变化中;② 旅游地竞争优势的轮换式消长形成客源轮换机会分布的分级圈层结构;③ 旅游地轮换式竞争格局体现在消费者出游决策次序的先后排布;④ 细分市场的选择偏好增强旅游地轮换机会分布的均等化趋向。研究进一步揭示了旅游地空间竞争时空格局的内在逻辑,拓宽了旅游地空间竞争的研究视角,同时给旅游地发展以及区域旅游的开发和管理实践提供新的参考。

关键词: 选择, 旅游地, 旅游者, 空间竞争, 规律

Abstract:

Destination spatial competition is a classic topic in the field of tourism geography and provides meaningful research for maximizing visits to a particular destination. This paper reports on a study to reexamine and explore destination competition rules based on destination choice behavior following the research paradigm that includes theory deduction, proposal of a hypothesis and empirical study. First, a research hypothesis was proposed for destination spatial competition rules using current destination choice and destination competitive literatures as a foundation. Second, an empirical study was conducted aimed at testing these hypotheses. Specifically, using the concept of a relational data model usually applied to social network analysis for reference, an analytical tool called a "circulant matrix" was developed for describing the dynamic changes of destination choice. Then, a case study was conducted using Hunan province, China as the chosen region for analysis. A method of systematic sampling (n=1913) was adopted to collect data in Changsha, the provincial capital of Hunan province, using a structured questionnaire. Participants were asked to report their demographics and which 31 destinations within Hunan province (excluding the Changsha urban area) they have or would choose in two cross-sections (i.e., destinations that tourists have chosen over the past years and those they will choose in the future). Finally, the analysis of the sample database revealed four important basic competitive rules, including: (1) The levels of destination competitive advantage change dynamically, but the extent of this change is not equal for every destination; (2) Owing to rotating destination choice behavior (i.e., tourists take turns choosing a destination from among a set within a region), the regional tourism spatial competitive process is characterized by this rotation, meaning the distribution of opportunity exhibits a hierarchical structure and thus a specific set of destinations will receive more chances compared with others; (3) The pattern of rotation is influenced by consumers' decision-making order regarding destinations; and (4) Different tourists' preferences contribute to increasing the trend of rotated equalization among all destinations. This study sheds new light on the inherent logic of destination spatial-temporal competition patterns and broadens the perspective of destination spatial competition research. Additionally, these findings provide new practical implications for regional tourism development and management.

Key words: choice, destination, tourist, spatial competition, rules