地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (2): 373-382.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201702014

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

高原城市水源地生态补偿额度核算及机制研究——以昆明松花坝水源地为例

张文翔1(), 明庆忠2, 牛洁1, 史正涛1, 雷国良3   

  1. 1. 云南师范大学高原地理过程与环境变化云南省重点实验室,昆明 650500
    2. 云南财经大学旅游文化产业研究院,昆明 650221
    3. 福建师范大学地理科学学院,福州 350007
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-08 修回日期:2017-01-20 出版日期:2017-02-20 发布日期:2017-02-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张文翔(1979- ),男,安徽合肥人,博士,副教授,主要从事区域生态与环境变化研究。E-mail:wenxiangzhang@gmail.com

  • 基金资助:
    云南省中青年学术与技术带头人后备人才(2015HB029);云南省教育厅科学研究基础项目(2013Y415);国家自然科学基金项目(41661044)

Calculation and mechanisms for ecological compensation credits in the drinking water source region of plateau cities: A case studyfrom the Songhuaba Reservoir region of Kunming

Wenxiang ZHANG1(), Qingzhong MING2, Jie NIU1, Zhengtao SHI1, Guoliang LEI3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Plateau Geographical Processes and Environmental Change of Yunnan Province,Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China
    2. Tourism Culture Industry Research Institute,Yunan University of Finance and Economics, Kunming 650221, China
    3. College of GeographicalSciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China
  • Received:2016-10-08 Revised:2017-01-20 Online:2017-02-20 Published:2017-02-20

摘要:

高原城市水库是高原城市最主要甚至唯一的饮用水源,建立和完善水源地生态补偿机制将关系到高原城市水资源安全与生态文明建设。通过对昆明市松花坝饮用水源地的实地考察与问卷调查,在明确生态补偿主客体及受访者补偿意愿的基础上,利用“水资源价值”和“机会成本法”模型核算了松花坝水源保护区的生态补偿需求额度。结果表明:现阶段松花坝饮用水源地生态补偿额度不足,且补偿形式相对单一,其生态补偿机制有待进一步完善。建议从生态补偿的主客体、补偿资金来源等方面完善高原城市水源地的生态补偿机制,并建立生态补偿基金、健全生态补偿奖惩机制等。研究结果将为我国高原城市饮用水源地生态补偿和生态建设研究提供参考与借鉴。

关键词: 生态补偿, 额度核算, 补偿机制, 饮用水源地, 高原城市

Abstract:

Reservoirs often serve as the dominant or even the only sources for drinking water supply for plateau cities and therefore the construction of an ecological compensation system in water source regions is the key to secure water safety and sustainability for plateau cities. In recent years, frequent and intensive human activities have caused enormous ecological and environmental pressures in sources for drinking water region, and the contradictions between the eco-environment protection and economic development are becoming more serious. Through field surveys and questionnaire, this study quantified the ecological compensation credits by applying the models of water resource values and opportunity cost after identifying the compensation payers and receivers, as well as the responders' willing to pay in the water source region of Songhuaba Reservoir in Kunming. The results show that there exists a shortage of ecological compensation credits by the models of water resources value and opportunity cost, and the credits, which was calculated by the model of water resources value, would be brought more objective and reasonable results. Meanwhile, the form of ecological compensation is relatively simple, suggesting the necessity of building a sustainable ecological compensation system. This can be achieved through identifying the receivers and payers of compensation fees and diversifying the credit sources, as well as setting up compensational funds, such as social donation, issuing ecological protection bonds and improving cascade water price. The special department should also be established to manage the funds, and a award and penalty system concerning water source regions need to be established. The measures related to ecological compensation on the drinking water source include the policy support from governments at all levels, such as the education compensation for the drinking water source and ecological relocation project. The research will benefit the effective supply of urban water resources, and has great practical implications for urban social development and ecological civilization construction. It also can serve as the reference for the construction of ecological compensation systems and the conservation of drinking water sources for plateau cities in China.

Key words: ecological compensation, compensation cost calculation, compensation system, drinking water source, plateau cities