地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (3): 407-419.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201703001

• 观点与争鸣 •    下一篇

区域生态安全格局构建研究进展与展望

彭建1,2(), 赵会娟2, 刘焱序1, 吴健生1,2   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871
    2. 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院,城市人居环境科学与技术重点实验室,深圳 518055
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-21 修回日期:2016-10-24 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-03-22
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:彭建(1976- ),男,四川彭州人,博士,副教授,研究方向为综合自然地理学、景观生态与土地利用、生态系统综合评估。E-mail:jianpeng@urban.pku.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271195);1999年,美国保护基金会和农业部林务局

Research progress and prospect on regional ecological security pattern construction

Jian PENG1,2(), Huijuan ZHAO2, Yanxu LIU1, Jiansheng WU1,2   

  1. 1. Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Ministry of Education, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, School of Urban Planning and Design, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China
  • Received:2016-06-21 Revised:2016-10-24 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-03-22

摘要:

近年来,城市化的不断推进使得生态系统面临巨大压力甚至诱发生态灾难,而另一方面人类对于生态系统服务福祉的提升提出了新要求,因此经济发展和生态保护两者之间的矛盾不断激化。生态安全格局作为沟通生态系统服务和人类社会发展的桥梁,目前被视为区域生态安全保障和人类福祉提升的关键环节。在系统梳理生态安全格局与城市增长边界、生态网络、绿色基础设施和生态控制线等概念内涵异同的基础上,从热点区域、生态源地指标筛选、生态阻力面设置与修正、相关研究成果应用等方面阐释区域生态安全格局构建的近今研究进展,并指出当前研究的主要不足;同时提出了区域生态安全格局构建的重点方向,即生态安全格局构建的重要阈值设定、有效性评价、多尺度关联和生态过程耦合等四个方面。

关键词: 生态安全格局, 生态源地, 生态廊道, 阻力面, 研究进展与展望

Abstract:

In recent years, due to the continuous urbanization, natural ecosystems are under enormous pressure, even resulting in ecological catastrophes. Moreover, with the start of the New Urbanization and Ecological Civilization Construction work in China, the demand for improvement of ecosystem services to promote human well-being is increasing. Hence, there is an intensifying contradiction between economic development and ecological protection. Ecological security patterns (ESPs) as a bridge linking ecosystem services and human society, has become one of the effective ways of constructing the protective barriers for terrestrial ecosystems. The ESPs construction directly affects the balance between social development and ecological conservation, and thus it has become the key to solving ecological problems and improving human well-being. To improve and enrich the theory of ESPs, we systematically combed the similarities and differences in the connotation of ESPs and other four main relevant concepts, namely urban growth boundary (UGB), ecological networks (EN), green infrastructure (GI), and ecological control lines (ECL). Furthermore, a research paradigm of regional ESPs construction was proposed based on literature review. According to this paradigm, research progresses on four main aspects were summarized systematically. These four aspects were research hotspots, ecological sources identification, ecological resistance surface setting, and practical application. Then the main deficiencies were indicated and summarized as follows: (1) The research objects selected in previous studies were mainly concentrated in the province, city and county levels, and were more confined to a specific administrative region, lacking larger-scale researches across administrative boundaries. (2) The selection of ecological index was mostly based on the intrinsic characteristics of ecological patches, less considering its relationship with surrounding objects and its status and functions in the whole pattern. And many studies ignored the coupling of human ecological demand and ecological processes. (3) The ecological resistance surface was assigned mainly based on land-use type, which covered up the difference between the internal space of the same land use type. The amended case studies based on impervious surface area and nighttime light were still insufficient to reveal the real situation. (4) Most of the provided policy recommendations for the protection and management of ESPs were broad and lack of the effective real-time monitoring and comparison to ecological security pattern. Based on the main disadvantage of regional ESPs construction in the current researches, we put forward four main directions for future research: setting important thresholds, evaluating the effectiveness of ESPs, constructing ESPs across multi-scales, and coupling the ESPs with ecological processes.

Key words: ecological security patterns, ecological source, ecological corridor, resistance surface, research progress and prospect