地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (3): 453-470.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201703005

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国生态用地分类体系及其1996-2012年时空分布

王静1,2(), 王雯3, 祁元4, 何挺2, 吴瑞娟5, 陈媛媛5   

  1. 1. 武汉大学资源与环境科学学院,武汉 430079
    2. 国土资源部中国土地勘测规划院,北京 100035
    3. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,北京 100875
    4. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所,兰州 730000
    5. 河海大学地球科学与工程学院,南京 210098
  • 收稿日期:2016-08-07 修回日期:2016-12-11 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-03-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王静(1966- ),女,浙江天台人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为土地资源利用与生态管护。E-mail:wjing0162@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41330750)

Classification system and spatio-temporal distribution of ecological land in China in the period of 1996-2012

Jing WANG1,2(), Wen WANG3, Yuan QI4, Ting HE2, Ruijuan WU5, Yuanyuan CHEN5   

  1. 1. School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
    2. China Land Surveying and Planning Institute, Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing 100035, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Process and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    4. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
    5. School of Earth Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
  • Received:2016-08-07 Revised:2016-12-11 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-03-20

摘要:

基于中国生态功能分区和土地利用现状分类,构建全国生态用地分类体系;利用第二次全国土地调查数据,并参考全国土地资源调查和历年土地利用变更数据,从国家层面和生态功能区尺度分析全国主导功能生态用地和多功能生态用地,以及八类典型生态用地的分布格局和时空变化特征。结果表明:全国主导功能生态用地、多功能生态用地以及典型生态用地区域分布极不平衡。1996-2012年间,全国主导功能生态用地整体变化幅度较小,多功能生态用地整体变化幅度较大,八类典型生态用地时空变化不均衡。生态用地变化与自然、社会、经济条件的区域差异和政策实施关系密切;通过全国生态用地时空变化规律分析,提出了不同区域不同生态系统生态用地保护和土地资源可持续利用的建议,为中国自然资源综合管理提供技术支撑。

关键词: 生态用地, 分类体系, 土地利用类型, 生态系统服务

Abstract:

Optimization of national land use spatial pattern and protection of natural ecological system and environment are two critical tasks for ecological civilization construction in China. In recent years, ecological land research has become a hot spot in the field of land use and ecosystem management in China. In this study, a multi-scale classification scheme of ecological land was developed based on combination of the land use classification and the ecological function zoning in China. The ecological function zoning was done at three scales (from large to small): ecological system, ecological grid unit and ecological land type. The term "ecological land type" is the land unit and geographical space being important to maintain the key ecological processes in land eco-system. The spatial and temporal distribution of major-functional ecological land types (including river, lake, shoaly land, swampland) and multi-functional ecological land types (including forest land, natural grassland, paddy field) were analyzed based on the national land survey and annual land use change survey by the Ministry of Land and Resources of China. The results indicated that the spatial distribution of each ecological land type was characterized with regional imbalance in China. The multi-functional ecological land types are mostly distributed in the monsoon region of eastern China. In addition, the ecosystem service supply regions do not match with population distribution. The spatial and temporal variations of each ecological land type in the period of 1996-2012 were characterized with imbalance. The area of major functional ecological land types besides forest land decreased largely. The ecosystem services supply in the main ecological function zones decreased at different degrees. Especially, in the period of 2000-2005, the area of ecological land type largely decreased. In details, the areas of natural grassland and paddy field decreased significantly. Additionally, the proportions of shoaly land and swampland decreased largely. The spatial and temporal changes in ecological land types were closely related to the regional differences of natural, social and economic conditions and the implementation of the policies. On the basis of the above analysis, the suggestions on ecological land protection and management for different eco-systems were proposed to provide supports for integrated management of natural resources in China.

Key words: ecological land type, classification system, land use types, ecosystem service