地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (3): 485-494.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201703007

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市区域生态风险预警方法及其在景观生态安全格局调控中的应用

李杨帆1(), 林静玉1, 孙翔2   

  1. 1. 厦门大学环境与生态学院,厦门 361102
    2. 广西大学环境学院,南宁 530004
  • 收稿日期:2016-08-24 修回日期:2016-12-27 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-03-22
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李杨帆(1978- ),男,湖北黄石人,副教授,博士,主要从事海岸带城市化与区域环境变化方面的科研与教学工作。E-mail:yangf@xmu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0502904);国家自然科学基金项目(41671084);广西大学科研基金资助项目(xgz150300);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(20720150074)

An early warning method on ecological risk and its application to improve landscape ecological security pattern regulation

Yangfan LI1(), Jingyu LIN1, Xiang SUN2   

  1. 1. College of Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian, China
    2. School of the Environment, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China
  • Received:2016-08-24 Revised:2016-12-27 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-03-22

摘要:

海岸带地区是中国乃至全球人口最稠密、城市化进程最快的区域,其生态风险与安全问题是关系人群和区域可持续发展的关键。运用景观生态学和景观生态安全格局理论方法,以厦门海岛型城市向海湾型城市战略转型这一快速、大规模城市化进程为大背景,提出基于2006-2015年城市不透水面变化率、风险受体敏感指标和生态红线管控的景观生态风险空间预警模型,与通过景观源—汇理论构建的景观生态安全格局相叠加,揭示厦门市景观生态安全格局在快速城市化的胁迫下现状与未来潜在风险状态,进而提出调控措施。研究表明:① 城市区域景观生态风险明显升高,风险预警高值区与ISA分布情况保持了较好的一致性,主要分布在以九溪流域、马銮湾、杏林湾、同安湾等港湾快速城市化区域,该部分地区城市沿河口空间外扩迅速,不透水面增长较快,对沿海湿地的侵占围填也较为严重,未来面临湿地或保护区破坏的生态风险较大。② 生态风险预警结果与景观生态安全格局相叠加,识别出区域景观生态安全格局中处于风险状态的关键源、缓冲区、廊道、战略点,设计规划未来厦门港湾区域景观生态安全优化格局,提出景观生态恢复与重建措施。将生态风险预警方法与景观生态安全格局调控设计相结合,能为城市区域环境管理与景观调控提供科学支撑。

关键词: 城市化, 生态风险, 生态安全, 景观格局, 调控, 预警

Abstract:

Coastal zone is the most popular area and also the fastest urbanization area in China and even in the whole world. The ecological risk and security in the coastal region is the key component for the people and regional sustainable development. This study uses the theories and methodologies of landscape ecology and landscape security patterns and applies them to Xiamen city, which is under rapid urbanization progress, as a strategic transformation from its original island-based city to a new larger bay-area-based city. Xiamen case study highlights the need for effective methods for early-warning analysis at landscape level, with reference to the long-term urban development of the bay-area city. This study proposes a landscape ecological risk spatial warning model based on the integrated impervious surface area (ISA) change, risk receptor sensitivity and ecological red line governance to predict ecological early warning in Xiamen city during the rapid urbanization context of 2006-2015. The results overlap with landscape ecological security pattern built by "source" and "sink" theory to reveal current and potential risk pushing the implementation of governance. Our research reveals the following two findings: (1) The level of regional ecological risk deepens while the high risk warning values are in accordance with ISA distribution on the rapid urbanization areas. Tongan Bay, Xinglin Bay and Maluan Bay are typical areas faced with high ecological risk due to the reclamation and sprawl of ISA. (2) Overlaid with landscape ecological security pattern, we identify the likely landscape early-warning characteristics of changes to strategic sources, key nodes, ecological corridors and buffer zones of bay-area wetlands, and the consequent effect on the wetlands and regional ecosystem, resulting from the urban sprawl and proposed urban development. In the identification and assessment of landscape change and safety, it is important to take into account the design of a potential safety pattern within the landscape. The implementation of landscape ecological restoration and rehabilitation of wetlands in the early-warning region would allow a better integration of landscape and ecological safety into urban-regional planning and decision-making, which can further promote a sustainable planning system.

Key words: rapid urbanization, ecological risk, ecological security, landscape pattern, regulation, early warning