地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (5): 972-984.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201705013

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    

上海市人口分布与空间活动的动态特征研究——基于手机信令数据的探索

钟炜菁1(), 王德2(), 谢栋灿2, 晏龙旭2   

  1. 1. 杭州市城市规划设计研究院,杭州 310012
    2. 同济大学建筑与城市规划学院,上海 200092
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-21 修回日期:2017-01-22 出版日期:2017-05-20 发布日期:2017-05-31
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:钟炜菁(1991- ),女,江西赣州人,硕士,研究方向为城市空间与行为、数据分析。E-mail:wjzhong0705@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(51378363);同济大学建筑设计研究院(集团)有限公司科研项目;同济大学人居环境生态与节能联合研究中心重点项目;高校博士点基金项目成果(20130072110053)

Dynamic characteristics of Shanghai's population distribution using cell phone signaling data

Weijing ZHONG1(), De WANG2(), Dongcan XIE2, Longxu YAN2   

  1. 1. Hangzhou City Planning and Design Academy, Hangzhou 310012, China
    2. College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
  • Received:2016-10-21 Revised:2017-01-22 Online:2017-05-20 Published:2017-05-31

摘要:

对城市人口空间分布的动态把握是了解人口活动规律、认识城市空间结构、配置城市基础设施和公共服务设施及制订城市公共安全应急保障方案的重要依据。由于目前国内缺少系统的人口动态变化统计数据,城市内部层面的人口空间分布和活动的动态特征方面的相关研究难以开展,研究成果较为有限。移动电话是目前普及率最高的通讯终端设备,其用户的动态分布信息可以准确地反应整个城市人口的空间分布与活动的动态特征。利用手机信令数据,以上海市为例,构建“人口—时间—行为”关系的人口空间动态分析框架,分析上海市人口分布和活动的动态特征。结果表明:上海整体人口密度呈单中心的圈层空间分布结构,昼夜空间分布经历“白天向中心集聚、夜晚向郊区分散”的流动过程;人的各类活动(如通勤、消费休闲)会产生人口空间分布的动态变化,职住关系的不匹配和活动对中心的高度依赖使得人口的空间分布不均,形成向心流动模式。消费休闲行为对中心城区的依赖度明显高于就业活动,且集中体现在紧邻中心城区的外围近郊呈圈层分布。

关键词: 手机信令数据, 昼夜人口, 居住与就业, 土地利用强度, 上海

Abstract:

Analysis of the dynamic characteristics of Shanghai's population distribution is an important basis for recognizing people's behaviors, allocating urban infrastructures, and making safety emergency plans. Be short of statistical data of temporal and spatial dynamic distribution of population, research on this topic is limited in China. Due to cell phone is the most popular communication terminal equipment, the distribution of cell phone users is able to reflect the distribution of population accurately. Using datasets of cell phone signaling records from Shanghai, this study builds a framework based on the relationship among population, time, and behavior to analyze dynamic characteristics of Shanghai's population distribution. The results show that: (1) there is a single center where the density of population at daytime and nighttime is the highest; (2) people gather in the center at daytime and flow to the suburbs at nighttime; (3) different types of people's behavior result in dynamic changes of population distribution; (4) spatial mismatch between employment and place of residence, and the dependence on city center cause a large number of people flow to city center; (5) the degree of dependence of leisure consumption behavior on city center is obviously higher than that of employment, especially in the ring areas adjacent to city center.

Key words: cell phone signaling data, population at daytime and nighttime, residence and employment, land use intensity, Shanghai