地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (5): 985-1000.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201705014

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    

元朝及以前书法景观文化遗产时空特征——基于《寰宇访碑录》及其补作数据库

颜丙金1,2,3(), 张捷1,3(), 李莉1,3, 卢韶婧1,3, 郭永锐4, 万基财5, 朱建华6, 肖潇7, 唐弘久8, 孙上茜1,3   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210023
    2. 南京财经大学工商管理学院,南京 210046
    3. 南京大学旅游研究所,南京 210023
    4. 江苏师范大学历史文化与旅游学院,徐州 221116
    5. 江苏省城市规划设计研究院,南京 210036
    6. 东北师范大学地理科学学院,长春 130024
    7. 佛蒙特大学环境与资源学院,伯灵顿 05405,美国
    8. 中山大学旅游学院,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-18 修回日期:2017-02-23 出版日期:2017-05-20 发布日期:2017-05-31
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:颜丙金(1985- ),男,河北邯郸人,讲师,主要从事书法景观、文化地理和黑色旅游研究。E-mail:xhxh_0101226@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40871072);“南京大学优秀博士研究生创新能力提升计划”项目(201502B009)

Temporal and spatial characteristic of Chinese calligraphic landscape heritages till Yuan Dynasty: Based on Huan Yu Fang Bei Lu and its supplementary

Bingjin YAN1,2,3(), Jie ZHANG1,3(), Li LI1,3, Shaojing LU1,3, Yongrui GUO4, Jicai WAN5, Jianhua ZHU6, Xiao XIAO7, Hongjiu TANG8, Shangqian SUN1,3   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. School of Business Administration, Nanjing University of Finance & Economics, Nanjing 210046, China
    3. Institute of tourism, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    4. School of History Culture and Tourism, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, 221116, Jiangsu, China
    5. Jiangsu Institute of Urban Planning and Design, Nanjing 210036, China
    6. School of Geographic Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
    7. School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, Burlington 05405, USA
    8. School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2016-10-18 Revised:2017-02-23 Online:2017-05-20 Published:2017-05-31

摘要:

基于文献分析法和ArcGIS技术,使用《寰宇访碑录》及《补寰宇访碑录》所记载元朝及以前书法景观数据库,揭示了全国尺度下书法景观文化遗产时空特征,分析了书家、书体空间特征及其影响因素,并通过书家权重和模型进行了全国分省书法遗产资源评价。结果表明:① 中国书法景观在时间上呈现出“四个高峰”和“两个过渡时期”特征,补充完善了已有相关研究;② 空间格局演变与政治、经济中心转移密切相关,且主导影响因素存在南北差异;③ 以中原文化为中心的基本格局是明清文化重心转移的历史基础,反衬了江南经济发展后文化新格局形成的特征;④ 以书法景观为对象的边际递减评价模型是有效的,一定程度上反映了文化中心“东移南迁”历史态势和文化权力在评价过程中的决定性作用。

关键词: 书法景观, 书法文化地理, 石刻, 文化遗产分布, 旅游资源评价

Abstract:

Calligraphy landscape, which is considered as a representative of the traditional culture of landscape type, is one kind of cultural heritages. Based on items statistics of Huan Yu Fang Bei Lu (Records of discovering calligraphic inscriptions all over China), one of the most comprehensive and detailed classical historic texts related to calligraphic landscapes of China till the Yuan Dynasty, the spatial and temporal characteristics of calligraphic landscape is studied by the method of text analysis and ArcGIS on the national scale. In addition, the spatial characteristic of calligraphic landscape is revealed and illustrated with respect to the statistics of the inscriptions, related calligrapher and chirography, and then the evolution of the spatial pattern is interpreted. Furthermore, we explored the influence of political, economic and cultural factors on the distribution of calligraphic landscapes according to this historical text. Then, all of the calligraphers are divided into five types, i.e., a master of calligrapher, famous calligrapher, calligrapher, regional calligrapher and other artists. A newly developed evaluation model with perspective of objective weighting has been applied to evaluate calligraphic landscapes later on. It is a relatively reasonable and effective measurement model to guide the evaluation model of tourism resources and cultural heritages scientifically. The results also provide a new transcendental ideas for tourism development, the evaluation and activation of cultural heritage. The main findings indicated that: (1) the temporal characteristic of Chinese calligraphic landscape presents 'four peaks' and 'two transitions', and complements the existing related theory with only initial 'two peaks' based on historical institutional analysis; (2) the evolution of spatial pattern is closely related to the transfer of the political, cultural and economic center, and there are different dominant factors that affect the patterns between the north and south China, which is divided by the boundaries of Qinling Mountains-Huaihe River; (3) the basic pattern centered on culture of the central plains is the historical background about the transfer or migration of the cultural core in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Meanwhile, it also serves as a foil to the new cultural pattern along with economic development south of the Yangtze River; (4) the evaluation model of tourism resources, taking calligraphic landscapes as objects, is effective, suggesting that the historical trend of the movement of cultural center to southeastern China. The results, in some sense, also indicate the key role of cultural authority in the evaluation of calligraphic landscapes. The power of the calligraphic landscapes reflects, in the aesthetic features of a historical period, frequency of the calligraphers and spatial characteristics of calligraphic landscape.

Key words: calligraphic landscape, geography of calligraphic culture, stone inscription, distribution of cultural heritage, evaluation of tourism resources