地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (6): 1053-1064.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201706005

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女性主义地理学视角下的广州女性居民日常出行目的及影响因素

何嘉明1,2(), 周素红1,2(), 谢雪梅3   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275
    2. 广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州 510275
    3. 深圳市龙岗区外国语学校,深圳 518172
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-02 修回日期:2017-03-03 出版日期:2017-06-30 发布日期:2017-07-18
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:何嘉明(1991- ),男,广东佛山人,硕士,主要从事城市地理与城市规划研究。E-mail: hejiam3@mail2.sysu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41522104,41271166);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(15lgjc24)

Female residents' daily travel purpose and its influencingfactors from the perspective of feminism: A case study in Guangzhou, China

Jiaming HE1,2(), Suhong ZHOU1,2(), Xuemei XIE3   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    3. Shenzhen Longgang Foreign Language School, Shenzhen 518172, Guangdong, China
  • Received:2017-01-02 Revised:2017-03-03 Online:2017-06-30 Published:2017-07-18

摘要:

日常生活的权利和平等是女性主义地理学关注的问题。在个体出行的视角上,已有的研究大多停留在两性出行特征差异的描述统计上,对反映两性家庭生活分工不平等的“出行目的”研究较为缺乏。工作型、家务型和休闲型三种类型的出行目的结构对审视女性出行活动权利和生活质量有着直接的作用,有必要进行深入探讨。此外,对女性的出行影响因素研究主要集中在个人和家庭属性因素上,缺乏对女性居民出行空间的建成环境分析。鉴于此,以广州市为例,选取18个社区的1604个样本为研究数据,以男女性居民的出行基本特征差异为基础,重点研究表征出行活动权利和生活质量的“出行目的”,以此解释家庭生活中存在的隐性不平等现象,并通过建立多项logistic模型,探讨造成女性居民出行目的差异的影响因素。结果显示:广州男女性居民在出行率、出行时耗、出行时间分布等基本出行特征方面差异不大,但出行目的结构却存在明显差异,这种差异揭示了隐性的性别休闲活动机会与权利的不平等现象;同时,这种性别不平等现象在不同女性群体内部存在一定的差异,主要体现在不同的个人属性及家庭结构上;而在建成环境因素中,用地混合度、建筑密度、POI密度和公交站点密度低的社区,工作日女性居民的出行目的更多受限于责任性的家务活动;在休息日,用地混合度、POI密度和商业可达性低的社区,女性居民的出行目的也更显著地指向家务活动,建成环境因素可能会进一步加剧日常出行中的性别不平等现象。研究结论为优化土地利用结构,为女性群体创造平等的出行空间和公共服务提供政策参考。

关键词: 日常出行, 出行目的, 女性主义, 广州

Abstract:

Gender equity and women's quality of everyday life has always been an important issue in the field of feminist geography. In the perspective of individual daily travel, most of the present studies on gender differences are confined to the statistical description of various travel characteristics. However, there is lack of research on travel purpose that directly reveals the essence of inequality of labor division between female and male in a family, especially for the daily travel purpose structure, including subsistence activity, maintenance activity and recreation activity, which is closely related to women's travel activity right and the quality of life. Previous research on the influencing factors of women's travel activities mainly focused on the personal and family attributes, but lacked of consideration of the built environment in different communities. As such, based on the gender differences of daily travel characteristics, this paper concentrates on the travel purpose and explores the inequalities existing in family life. A total of 1604 resident samples in 18 communities in Guangzhou are selected as research data. A multinomial logistic model is used to examine the influencing factors of female's travel purposes, including individual attributes, family attributes and the built environment attributes in their residential communities. The results show that there is no significant gender difference in terms of daily travel activities such as travel rate, travel time, and departure time distribution. However, the structure of travel purposes is obviously different between female and male. And the significant factors that affect the female residents' travel purpose structure include "age", "educational level", "family structure", "whether they have 0-6 years old children". Moreover, some built environment factors are also significantly associated with the female's travel purpose. On weekdays, for those who live in low POI density or low public transport facility density communities, their travel purposes are more likely to be restricted to maintenance housework activities. And on the rest days, in low construction density, POI density, commercial accessibility or insufficient public transport facility communities, female residents' travel purposes are similarly confined to responsible daily activities, but with less recreational travel opportunities. This study could shed light on the formation of equal travel space for the female group, and provide beneficial implications for the optimization of the land use structure and adequate public infrastructure services in communities concerning women's quality of life.

Key words: daily travel, travel purpose, feminist, Guangzhou