地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (8): 1401-1414.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201708001

• 观点与争鸣 •    下一篇

透视中国自然灾害区域分异规律与区划研究

史培军1,2,3(), 王季薇1,3, 张钢锋1,3, 孔锋1,3, 王静爱2,4   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,北京 100875
    2. 北京师范大学环境演变与自然灾害教育部重点实验室,北京 100875
    3. 民政部/教育部减灾与应急管理研究院,北京 100875
    4. 北京师范大学区域地理实验室,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-20 修回日期:2017-06-14 出版日期:2017-08-10 发布日期:2017-09-04
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:史培军(1959- ),男,陕西靖边人,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为环境演变与自然灾害。E-mail: spj@bnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41321001);国家研发计划项目(2016YFA0602404)

Research review and prospects of natural disastersregionalization in China

Peijun SHI1,2,3(), Jiwei WANG1,3, Gangfeng ZHANG1,3, Feng KONG1,3, Jing'ai WANG2,4   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Environmental Change and Natural Disasters, Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    3. Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Ministry of Civil Affairs and Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875, China
    4. Laboratory ofRegional Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2017-03-20 Revised:2017-06-14 Online:2017-08-10 Published:2017-09-04

摘要:

中国是受自然灾害影响最为严重的国家之一,灾害种类多,发生频率高,受灾影响地域广,伴随着全球气候变化以及中国经济的快速发展和快速城市化,自然灾害形成更加复杂,灾害应对以及防范形势更显严峻。开展自然灾害区域分异规律与区划的研究,一直是综合减灾和国际地理科学研究的重要领域,同时对制定区域发展规划、综合减灾规划、生态文明建设规划等都有着重要的意义。对中国自然灾害区域分异规律与区划研究进展进行了梳理,即分析了从基于地质构造的自然灾害区划到基于孕灾环境的自然灾害区划,再到针对应用目标的农业自然灾害区划、城市自然灾害区划、自然灾害救助区划等的理解与认识,展示中国过去几十年灾害时空格局与区域分异研究的发展历程。结果表明:在自然与人文因素作用下,中国自然灾害呈现出明显的东西分异为主、南北分异为辅,且在高、低灾情区域镶嵌着低、高灾情片的空间格局。在这些研究基础上,倡导在促进灾害风险科学发展和保障区域可持续性需求下,应进一步加深对环境和自然灾害区域分异规律与区划的研究,同时尽快开展自然灾害综合风险区划的研究工作。

关键词: 自然灾害, 区域规律, 灾害区划, 气候变化, 风险, 中国

Abstract:

China is one of the countries that are greatly affected by natural disasters, with many types and high frequency, and large disaster-stricken areas. Under the global climate change and China's fast economic growth and rapid urbanization, the formation of natural disasters has become increasingly complex, and responses of disasters and disaster prevention tend to be more serious. Carrying out the research into the regional patterns and regionalization of natural disasters has been the main fields of integrated disaster reduction and research of geography science, and it also plays a key role in making up regional development plan, integrated disaster reduction plan, and ecological civilization construction plan. This article reveals the research review and prospects of natural disasters regionalization in China, and examines the natural disaster patterns in China based on the geological structure and the physical and social geography environment. It aims to get a better understanding of agricultural and urban natural disaster, and natural disaster relief regionalization, as well as the history of studies on natural disaster regionalization in China. Under the joint effect of natural and human factors, the natural disasters in China present a major east-west differentiation and a minor north-south differentiation and a spatial pattern of high (low) disaster areas with low (high) disaster pieces. On this basis, this article initiates the regional patterns of natural disasters with geography environment as well as the regionalization of natural disasters. In the future, the studies on natural disaster risk in China need to be furthered. Based on the development of disaster risk science and the upgrade of regional sustainability, a regionalization scheme of integrated natural disaster risk in China should be proposed as soon as possible.

Key words: natural disasters, regional pattern, disaster regionalization, climate change, risk, China