地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (8): 1478-1488.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201708007

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

围垦及米草入侵下江苏中部滨海湿地土地利用/覆被类型动态变化

金宇1,2(), 高吉喜1,2(), 周可新2, 穆少杰2   

  1. 1. 南京信息工程大学应用气象学院,南京 210044
    2. 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所,南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-10 修回日期:2017-06-10 出版日期:2017-08-10 发布日期:2017-09-04
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:金宇(1989- ),男,江苏镇江人,博士研究生,主要从事区域生态学研究。E-mail: xinyu1989999@sina.com

  • 基金资助:
    江苏省自然科学青年基金资助项目(BK20140117);环保公益性行业科研专项资助项目(201409055);国家环保公益性行业科研专项(201209027)

Dynamic of land use/cover changes under reclamation and Spartina alterniflora invasion in Jiangsu central coastal wetlands

Yu JIN1,2(), Jixi GAO1,2(), Kexin ZHOU2, Shaojie MU2   

  1. 1. College of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
    2. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042, China
  • Received:2017-03-10 Revised:2017-06-10 Online:2017-08-10 Published:2017-09-04

摘要:

通过1979年、1991年、2003年和2015年四期的遥感影像,研究1979-2015年间江苏中部滨海湿地的围垦及米草入侵的动态变化及二者影响下土地利用/覆被类型的演化过程。结果表明:1979-2015年,围垦和米草边界总体上不断向海推进,不同岸段推进速度存在差异。围垦面积持续加速增长,各段平均增速为3.43 km2/yr,米草面积在1991-2003年间增速最快,各段平均增速0.89 km2/yr,2002年以后增速下降,为-0.03 km2/yr。芦苇滩涂和碱蓬滩涂转化为围垦的面积占围垦土地来源的比例持续下降,米草滩涂和光滩的这一比例持续上升,对米草滩涂的围垦主要位于方塘河口以北,对光滩的围垦主要位于方塘河口以南。芦苇滩涂、碱蓬滩涂和光滩对米草滩涂面积的贡献为:光滩>碱蓬滩涂>芦苇滩涂。研究区演化路径总体呈现光滩—盐生植被—围垦的方向,但存在缩短趋势;米草入侵挤占了本地盐生植被的扩张空间。

关键词: 滨海湿地, 土地利用/覆被, 围垦, 米草入侵, 演化方向, 江苏

Abstract:

Duo to the combined influence of human activities and natural factors, coastal wetlands in Jiangsu province has undergone rapid change in recent years. This article examines the evolution and spatial distribution of wetlands in central Jiangsu province between 1979 and 2015 through analysis of Landsat TM images. The land use/cover changes induced by reclamation and Spartina alterniflora invasion from 1979 to 2015 (1979, 1991, 2003 and 2015) were detected. The results indicated that the areas of reclamation and Spartina alterniflora in four periods extended to the sea at most locations, while the extending speed varied spatially. The reclamation area continued to be enlarged at an accelerated speed, mainly concentrated in between Wanggang port and Xiaoyangkou port. The reclamation area of each section between Wanggang port and Xiaoyangkou port increased by 3.43 km2/yr on average. The area of Spartina alterniflora increased rapidly during the period of 1991-2003, with a rate of 0.89 km2/yr at each section. However, the rate declined to -0.03 km2/yr during 2003-2015. The proportions of reclamation converted from Pragmites communis declined from 71.30% in 1979-1991 to 9.74% in 2003-2015. The proportions of reclamation evolved from Spartina alterniflora and bare flat increased to 37.98% and 30.90%, respectively. Evolution of Spartina alterniflora to reclamation mainly occurred to the north of Fangtang estuary, while evolution of bare flat to reclamation mainly occurred to the south of Fangtang estuary. Bare flat was the largest source of Spartina alterniflora, followed by Suaeda gsalsa, and Pragmites communis was the smallest. The main area of Spartina alterniflora invasion to bare flat was found from Xinyang estuary to Liangduo estuary. The coastal wetlands evolution of central Jiangsu showed a general trend from bare flat→halophytic vegetation→reclamation, but there was a significant shortening trend due to accelerating reclamation. The invasion of Spartina alterniflora has occupied the living space of local halophytic vegetation.

Key words: coastal wetlands, land use/cover, reclamation, Spartina alterniflora invasion, evolution direction, Jiangsu