地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (8): 1503-1514.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201708009

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国货运航空企业发展过程及航线网络演化格局

莫辉辉1(), 胡华清1, 王姣娥2,3   

  1. 1. 中国民航科学技术研究院,北京 100028
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-16 修回日期:2017-06-17 出版日期:2017-08-10 发布日期:2017-09-04
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:莫辉辉(1979- ),男,副研究员,主要研究方向为民航发展规划、交通运输与区域发展等。E-mail: huihuimo@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371143)

Air cargo carriers development and network evolution:A case study of China

Huihui MO1(), Huaqing HU1, Jiaoe WANG2,3   

  1. 1. China Academy of Civil Aviation Science and Technology, Beijing 100028, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing 100101, China
    3. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2017-03-16 Revised:2017-06-17 Online:2017-08-10 Published:2017-09-04

摘要:

自1997年首家货运航空企业运营以来,中国专业化货运航空发展已有二十年历史。受经济全球化和金融危机的影响,货运航空企业发展经历破产、重组、转型等变革,目前仅存6家,专业化航空货运市场规模相对较小。HHI指数分析表明,中国货运航空企业市场结构演化表现为“U”型特征,近期呈现向高寡头占有市场发展趋势。以中邮航、国货航、中货航及顺丰航空为代表,进一步分析货运航空企业的网络拓展、组织效率和枢纽格局。研究发现:四大航企航线网络拓展较为平稳,主要在三大城市群建设单枢纽或者双枢纽、通过“轴辐”模式组织运营,因而具有较高的网络组织效率。研究建议加快培育货运航空企业,鼓励拓展航线网络,并在中国内陆及全球建设货运航空枢纽。

关键词: 货运航空企业, 市场结构, 航线网络, 组织效率, 枢纽, 中国

Abstract:

China has a history of about 20 years for developing air cargo carriers since the first was in operation in 1997. Influenced by the economic globalization and financial crisis, China's air cargo carriers experienced bankruptcy, reorganization or transition during the last ten years. Nowadays, only six air cargo carriers have survived. From the trajectory of aircraft movement, flying hours, cargo traffic operated by China's air carriers, the historical periods can be divided into three stages: (1) initial development before 2001, (2) rapid development between 2001 and 2010, and (3) reorganization and transition since 2011. We found three modes on developing air cargo carries. The first mode originates from the express company, such as China Postal Airlines (CF), Shunfeng Airlines (O3), and YTO Cargo Airlines Co., Ltd. (YG). The second comes from the specialization of cargo department of combination carriers, such as China Cargo Airlines (CK) and Air China Cargo Co., Ltd (CA). The third made a transition to combination carriers, such as Donghai Airlines (DZ) and Yangtze River Express Airlines Co., Ltd (Y8). Then we employ the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) to investigate the market structure of China's air cargo carriers, and the result shows a U-shaped trend of HHI. The HHI index represents the highly concentrated market of China's air cargo carriers. With the data of the big four air cargo carriers in China, including CF, CK, CA and O3, we further study the spatial expansion, organization efficiency and hub configuration of those airline networks. The results show that: (1) the network expansion of the Big Fours remains relatively stable; (2) CK and CA aim to develop the international market, reversely CF and O3 in domestic market; (3) The Big Fours have a relatively short average path length, which represents a relatively efficient network organization; (4) The Big Fours established a hub-and-spoke transport mode with one or two hubs to organize the airline network efficiently, such as CF with a hub in Nanjing Lukou international airport, CK in Shanghai Pudong international airport, CA in Beijing capital international airport and Shanghai Pudong international airport, and O3 in Shenzhen Bao'an international airport and Hangzhou Xiaoshan international airport. With the rapid growth of air cargo demands in the future, China needs 2 or 3 large-scale air cargo carriers with global competitiveness, which replies to the Belt and Road Initiative. Air cargo carriers are encouraged to expanse network and establish hubs in inland areas especially in western China, also across the world.

Key words: air cargo carrier, market structure, airline network, organization efficiency, hub