地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (9): 1697-1708.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201709008

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

微观尺度下基于商圈的北京市商业空间结构优化

王芳1(), 牛方曲2(), 王志强2   

  1. 1. 内蒙古大学公共管理学院,呼和浩特 010070
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,区域可持续发展模拟分析重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-26 修回日期:2017-06-19 出版日期:2017-09-15 发布日期:2017-12-12
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王芳(1987- ),女,内蒙古呼和浩特人,博士,讲师,研究方向为城市地理。E-mail: wangf741@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371536,41101119);内蒙古自然科学基金项目(2016BS0401)

Commercial spatial structure optimization based on trade area analysis from a micro-scale perspective in Beijing

Fang WANG1(), Fangqu NIU2(), Zhiqiang WANG2   

  1. 1. School of Public Management of Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010070, China
    2. Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2017-02-26 Revised:2017-06-19 Online:2017-09-15 Published:2017-12-12

摘要:

随着中国经济发展方式的转变,城市商业空间逐渐成为推动发展和塑造城市空间的强劲力量。基于微观尺度,将商圈的研究向城市内部细分地域拓展,运用POI、网络房产数据等开源大数据,通过构建人口住宅小区空间化模型,以及运用哈夫模型与Voronoi相结合的方法,对北京市各功能类型商业区的商圈进行划分,分析其空间服务范围和服务人口,从而探讨城市商业空间的合理性。结果表明:饮食文化型、专营型、购物中心型、便利型、综合型五种类型商业区的商圈布局和服务人口均有不同的特征;普遍存在着城市周边商圈面积过大、服务人口过多,城市内部存在部分布局盲点,商业功能类型与人口布局不协调等问题。基于此,提出优化北京市商业空间优化的相应建议:加快城市周边商业发展、弥补中心城区商业布局不足、根据商业区类型设定布局发展方向、从功能结构和空间结构方面深化城市商业规划。

关键词: 商圈, 商业区, 居住区, 空间优化, 北京市

Abstract:

Urban commercial districts are concentrated areas for shopping, leisure, business and other activities. For urban planners, the layout of commercial districts should not only be appropriately concentrated to realize economic benefit, but also properly dispersed to accommodate the distribution of the population. Taking Beijing as a case study, this paper conducted a small-scale research of trade areas by utilizing the open source big data, such as POI (Point of Information) and real estate information websites. We created a model of spatialization of the population on a residential block scale as well as a combined measure of Huff model and Voronoi diagram. These methods were used to systematically analyze the commercial spatial structure from the viewpoint of a small area in Beijing. We explored the layout and population of trade areas of five different functional types of commercial districts based on our previous related research, including dietary and cultural commercial districts, franchise-type commercial districts, shopping commercial districts, convenience commercial districts, and complex commercial districts. The results reveal that different kinds of trade areas have different spatial distribution features. Problems were also found: the areas of commercial trade areas at the urban fringes and the number of people they serve are too large; there are blind spots in the urban center; and there is incongruity between the commercial district type and population layout. Based on these findings, we propose several measures to optimize the commercial spatial structure: promoting the development of commerce in the outer space of the central city; making up for the layout shortage of commercial districts in the central city; defining the direction and development of the commercial districts based on the functional type; improving the urban commercial planning based on the functional and spatial structures.

Key words: trade area, commercial district, residential block, spatial structure optimization, Beijing