地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (9): 1709-1724.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201709009

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

乡村旅游开发对农户生计和社区旅游效应的影响——旅游开发模式视角的案例实证

陈佳1(), 张丽琼2, 杨新军1(), 李钢1   

  1. 1. 西北大学城市与环境学院,西安 710127
    2. 西北大学图书馆,西安 710127
  • 收稿日期:2016-12-23 修回日期:2017-04-08 出版日期:2017-09-15 发布日期:2017-09-15
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:陈佳(1989-),男,湖南溆浦人,博士研究生,研究方向为社会—生态系统与旅游(区域) 可持续发展。E-mail: dongdongbj2010@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家旅游局“万名旅游英才计划”项目(WMYC20151083);陕西高校人文社会科学青年英才支持计划(HSSTP);湖南省人居环境学研究基地开放基金项目(RJ15K02);陕西省自然科学基础研究计划面上项目(2014JM5205)

The impact of tourism development on changes of households' livelihood and community tourism effect: A case study based on the perspective of tourism development mode

Jia CHEN1(), Liqiong ZHANG2, Xinjun YANG1(), Gang LI1   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
    2. The Library of Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
  • Received:2016-12-23 Revised:2017-04-08 Online:2017-09-15 Published:2017-09-15

摘要:

乡村旅游开发不可避免会重构人地关系,对农户、乡村社区都会产生重要影响,不同旅游开发模式直接影响乡村旅游发展绩效。以三类乡村旅游地为例,在总结资源、管理和发展主体差异的基础上,发现其呈现三类模式,各自特征分别表现为社区集体发展的民俗体验、社区主导的农家乐休闲和政府主导的遗址景区休闲。进而利用可持续生计框架和旅游效应理论,系统分析旅游开发模式对农户生计变化和社区的影响。研究表明:三种模式下农户生计策略都由传统农业生计方式向新型旅游经营主导生计转型,农户金融、物质、社会资本提升明显;其资源开发模式决定农户生计多样性与务工选择,旅游经营管理模式影响生计资本变化方向和社区旅游效应差异。其次,通过逻辑回归模型深入解释了三种类型旅游开发模式的影响作用,并给出其影响机理的理论解释。研究指出三种模式旅游影响途径都以农户金融、物质资本提升、乡村社会经济发展主导,相比而言,社区集体运营、农户主导的袁家村模式以“人”为核心,促进了乡村旅游全面发展。总体来说,资源差异与社区基础是农户生计变化、社区影响的原动力,政府角色、社区(企业)作用与农户利益是旅游开发管理的核心,旅游开发模式中政府有效管理、农户主体地位与外界力量正确介入才能保障乡村旅游有序进行,促进乡村社区发展与转型。

关键词: 乡村旅游, 农户, 旅游开发模式, 社区, 生计资本

Abstract:

Rural tourism development inevitably reconstructs the human-environment relationship, which exerts a significant impact on household and rural communities, and different tourism development modes directly affect the development performance of rural tourism. Firstly, this paper takes three types of rural sightseeing place as an example, on the basis of summarizing the differences of resources, management and development subject. It is found that three types of patterns have formed, which are characterized by folk experience of community collective development, "Nong Jia Le" leisure of community leading and ruins scenic spots leisure of government leading. And then, this article uses the sustainable livelihoods framework and tourism effect theory to systematically analyze the impact of tourism development modes on changes of households' livelihood and communities. It turns out that the three modes of livelihood strategies are from the traditional agricultural livelihood to a new tourism business livelihood. Household finance, material and social capital increase notably; the resource development mode determines the households' livelihood diversity and selection of migrant workers, and the mode of tourism management affect the change direction of livelihood capital and the difference of community tourism effects. Secondly, the role of the three types of tourism development model is explained by the logistic regression model, and the theoretical explanation of the mechanism of effects is presented. This research points out that the approach of influence of the three tourism modes are dominated by the households' finance and physical capital promotion as well as rural social and economic development. In comparison, Yuanjia village mode, which is operated by communities in a collective way and is household-oriented, takes "people" as the core, promoting the comprehensive development of rural tourism. In general, differences in resources and the foundation of communities are the driving force of households' livelihood changes and community impacts. At the same time, the role of government, the function of communities (enterprises) and the interest of households are the core of tourism development and management. Only the three conditions, namely, effective management of government, dominant position of households and external forces all carried out properly, can ensure ordered operation of rural tourism and thus promote the development and transformation of rural communities.

Key words: rural tourism, household, tourism development model, community, livelihood capital