地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (9): 1755-1772.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201709012

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

1962-2016年达里诺尔流域水、草退化及气候响应

马超1,2(), 刘玮玮1, 赵鹏飞1, 马雯思1, 马威1   

  1. 1. 河南理工大学测绘与国土信息工程学院,焦作 454000
    2. 河南理工大学矿山空间信息国家测绘与地理信息局重点实验室,焦作 454000
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-24 修回日期:2017-07-19 出版日期:2017-09-15 发布日期:2017-12-12
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:马超(1967- ),男,内蒙古克什克腾旗人,博士,教授,主要从事遥感理论教学和遥感技术矿区地质灾害的监测研究。E-mail: mac@hpu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金委员会与神华集团有限责任公司联合资助项目(U1261206,U1261106)

Wetland and grassland egradation and the response to climate in Dalinor Basin duing 1962-2016

Chao MA1,2(), Weiwei LIU1, Pengfei ZHAO1, Wensi MA1, Wei MA1   

  1. 1. School of Surveying & Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, Henan, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Mine Spatial Information Technologies of SBSM, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, Henan, China
  • Received:2017-02-24 Revised:2017-07-19 Online:2017-09-15 Published:2017-12-12

摘要:

基于Keyhole-1(1962年)、Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI数据(1985-2016年)、SRTM/ASTER DEM和湖区周边气象站点(1961-2012年)年均气温和降水数据,对达里诺尔三个主要湖泊的水域面积、人类活动典型环境要素(居民地、耕地和草场面积)以及主要流域植被覆盖度进行定量化表达及相关性分析。研究表明:达里诺尔流域一些生态、人文、地理指标发生了变化,55年来(1962-2016年)三个主要湖泊水域面积缩小了24.65%,居民地面积增加了15.32倍,耕地面积增加了7.86倍;32年来(1985-2016年)全流域平均植被指数降低了约38.46%,饲草(放牧及冬储用)面积占流域可利用面积52.80%;主要湖泊水域面积变化与全球气候要素变化不显著相关,与人类活动典型环境要素(居民地、耕地和草场面积变化)显著相关,人类活动正成为湖泊湿地退化的主导因素。

关键词: 达里诺尔流域, 湖泊湿地, 生态功能, 归一化植被指数, 气候变化, 人地关系

Abstract:

The Dalinor Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve is included on the list of Asia important wetlands. Being an integrated ecosystem composed by lakes, rivers, swamps, wet meadows and sparse grasslands, the Dalinor reserve behaves as the important ecological function region in the eastern basin of Inner Mongolia Plateau, and also a natural eco-barrier of the Beijing-Tianjin region. Based on multi-sourced remote sensing data of Keyhole-1 (1962), Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI (1985-2016) and SRTM/ASTER DEM (2000, 2009), along with field observations of annual temperature and precipitation from 3 meteorological stations around the lake, interpretations and quantification were carried out on the water area of the three main lakes (i.e. Dalinor, Ganggengnor and Duolunor lakes) within Dalinor watershed, typical environmental elements of human activities (i.e., the area of the residential, cultivated and grazing land) and vegetation coverage derived from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), especially the variation of the river basin and climate change and their correlation between human activities in this 55-year period (1962-2016) were analyzed. The research reveals that: (1) There have been changes on the ecological, humanistic and geographical indicators of the Dalinor area. In the past 55 years, the water areas of the three lakes shrank by 24.65%, while the inhabitants and cultivated lands increased by 15.32 and 7.86 times, respectively. Focusing on a 32-year period from 1985 to 2016, the average NDVI was reduced by about 38.46% within the whole region, and the grassland (for pasture) reached 1720 km2, accounting for 52.8% of the available area. (2) The variation of the water area of the main lakes presented no significant correlation with the global climate change, however, its strong relationships with typical environmental elements (changes in the area of the residential, cultivated and grazing land) were observed, suggesting that human activities are becoming the dominant factors which lead to the wetland and grassland degradation. (3) The warming rate across the Dalinor basin climbed much higher than the average level of the global and Northeast Asia scale, indicating that a prominent warming-drying trend was performed during this period, to a certain extent, the fragile habitat of the Dalinor reserve acts like an "Ecological magnifier" to the global climate change. The wetland ecology of the Dalinor watershed is extremely sensitive to global climate change.

Key words: Dalinor Basin, wetland, ecological function, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), climate change, man-land relationship