地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (11): 2075-2087.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201711004

• 羌塘高原研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

羌塘高原核心区2013-2014年土壤温度变化特征

祁威1,2(), 张镱锂1,2,3, 刘林山1(), 王兆锋1, 丁明军4, 赵志龙1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院青藏高原地球科学卓越创新中心,北京 100101
    4. 江西师范大学地理与环境学院,鄱阳湖湿地与流域研究教育部重点实验室,南昌 330022
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-05 修回日期:2017-08-10 出版日期:2017-11-20 发布日期:2017-11-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:祁威(1987- ),男,河北涿州人,博士,主要从事自然地理研究。E-mail:qiw@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础性工作专项重点项目(2012FY111400);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDB03030500);国家科技支撑计划(2012BAC06B00)

Characteristics of soil temperature variation in core region of Northern Tibetan Plateau in China during 2013-2014

Wei QI1,2(), Yili ZHANG1,2,3, Linshan LIU1(), Zhaofeng WANG1, Mingjun DING4, Zhilong ZHAO1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    4.Key Lab of Poyang Lake Wetland and Watershed Research, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China
  • Received:2017-04-05 Revised:2017-08-10 Online:2017-11-20 Published:2017-11-20

摘要:

基于羌塘高原核心区布设的19套土壤温湿度仪器和3个自动气象站2013年9月-2014年10月间的监测数据,分析羌塘高原核心区不同站点在1 cm、10 cm、20 cm深度处的土壤温度日变化和季节变化特征。结果表明:① 研究时段内站点1 cm、10 cm、20 cm深度土壤的日均温在-16.27~17.18 ℃之间波动,随着土壤深度的增加,温度变幅逐渐减小。② 站点间的日均温差最大不超过12.82 ℃,主要受海拔与纬度的影响。昼夜变化呈现升温快,降温慢的特征。③ 不同深度的土壤平均最冷月均温为-12.69 ℃,最暖月均温为13.15 ℃,土壤日平均温度的年际变幅在30 ℃左右。在土壤冻结/消融过程中土壤温度的变异系数很高,表层更加明显,且消融过程变异性比冻结过程更强。④ 在月尺度上土壤1 cm日平均温度与气温的相关性最强,可达到0.99以上。研究将有助于填补该地区土壤温度数据的空白,对认识该区域冰冻、消融交替过程中土壤热量迁移的连续变化也有重要的意义。

关键词: 羌塘高原, 土壤温度, 冻结消融过程, 水热交换, 青藏高原

Abstract:

A total of 19 soil temperature stations and three automatic weather stations in Gaize and Ritu counties, Tibet within the core region of Northern Tibetan Plateau, have been established to measure soil temperature at three soil depths (1 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm) with their elevations varying from 4515 to 5172 m. The station-averaged soil temperature data at hourly to monthly scale are used to analyse the characteristics of soil temperature and thaw-freezing processes during the period from September, 2013 to October, 2014. Major findings are as follows: The ranges of daily soil temperature at 1 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm depths are -16.27 to 17.18 ℃, -14.35 to 15.75 ℃, and -13.49 to 14.70 ℃, respectively during the study period. Soil temperature varied in a slower amplitude with the increase of depths. The difference of 22 stations may have relationship with elevation and latitude, and the spatial variability is less than 12.82 ℃. The temperature continuous rising process is faster than continuous cooling process at daily scale. For all the three depths of soil temperature, the coldest month is January with an average temperature of -12.69 ℃, and the warmest month is July with an average temperature of 13.15 ℃. The annual range of daily mean temperature is about 30 ℃. The soil temperature has a strong coefficient of variation (CV) values during thaw phase and freezing phase, especially at 1 cm soil depth. And the CV values during the thaw phase are higher than those during the freezing phase. In view of the correlation analysis between air temperature and soil temperature at three soil depths, the soil temperature at 1 cm depth is strongly correlated with air temperature at monthly scale with the correlation coefficient being r = 0.99. The results will provide reliable data for the basic research of the Tibetan Plateau. And it will also provide a scientific basis for regional thaw phase and freezing phase, soil heat transfer and hydrological and thermal process.

Key words: Northern Tibetan Plateau, soil temperature, thaw-freezing cycle, hydrological and thermal processes, Tibetan Plateau