地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (11): 2088-2100.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201711005

• 羌塘高原研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

羌塘高原高寒湖盆区土壤属性分异特征研究——以查日那足山麓至湖滨地区为例

王兆锋1(), 张镱锂1,2(), 刘林山1, 赵志龙1, 祁威1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院青藏高原地球科学卓越创新中心,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-21 修回日期:2017-09-05 出版日期:2017-11-20 发布日期:2017-11-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王兆锋(1976- ),男,山东齐河人,副研究员,主要从事青藏高原土地利用变化的土壤环境效应及其分异特征研究。E-mail:wangzf@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家科技基础性工作专项重点项目(2012FY111400);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDB03030500);国家科技支撑计划(2013BAC04B02)

Soil spatial characteristics in lake basin on Qiangtang Plateau: A case study from Charinazu piedmont to lakeside

Zhaofeng WANG1(), Yili ZHANG1,2(), Linshan LIU1, Zhilong ZHAO1, Wei QI1   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2.Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2017-04-21 Revised:2017-09-05 Online:2017-11-20 Published:2017-11-20

摘要:

分析典型资料匮乏的高寒区——羌塘高原中部查日那足山麓湖盆区8个点位0~5 cm、5~10 cm、10~20 cm三个深度层次的22个土壤样品,分析改区域的土壤属性特征及其空间分异规律。研究发现:① 研究区土壤pH值平均为8.9;有机质、全磷、全钾等养分含量低;钙、镁含量高;钠、钾、铁等元素含量低。② 从湖滨到山麓,土壤中大于2 mm砾石含量呈逐渐降低的趋势,但细土物质平均粒径逐渐变大;土壤有机质、氮、钠、微量元素含量呈上升趋势,钙和镁呈下降趋势;其他指标波动较大。③ 土壤碳氮比稳定在5:1左右;钙、镁含量呈显著正相关,钙镁与其他指标呈显著负相关;钾、钠与除钙、镁外的其他金属元素含量呈显著的正相关关系。

关键词: 土壤理化性状, 高寒区, 土壤形成, 羌塘高原, 青藏高原

Abstract:

The Changtang Plateau is a typical alpine area in Asia, as well as one of the regions with fewer available data. Exploring soil properties and their data is very helpful to grasp the soil forming characteristics in cold environments. Twenty two soil samples, covering the three layers: 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-20 cm, from 8 sample points, were collected from Charinazu piedmont to the lakeside near Chabu village in Gerze County, Tibet Autonomous Region in the central area of Changtang plateau. The soil particle composition, pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, alkali solution nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, and soil calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) were measured. Soil properties and their spatial characteristics were discussed. The results indicated: (1) the soil pH is 8.9; Compared to the national background values of frigid calcic soils, the soil organic matter, total phosphorus, total potassium and alkali solution nitrogen content are lower; Ca and Mg content are higher; and Na, K, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn contents are lower than the corresponding background values. (2) Spatial characteristics: the soil pH value was lower near the lakeside and piedmont, and it was higher in the middle section; From the lakeside to the foothills, the gravel (with more than 2 mm diameter) content showed a reducing trend, but the average particle size of fine soil (less than 2 mm) increased gradually; Soil organic matter, total nitrogen and alkali solution nitrogen content increased; Available potassium and available phosphorus decreased, but the total phosphorus content fluctuated greatly with no obvious trend. Soil Ca and Mg content showed a declining trend; Na increased slightly; Fe fluctuated; and Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn content also increased slightly with large fluctuations. (3) Soil pH, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, alkali solution nitrogen, and Cd had poor relationships to the values of other soil indicators. The correlation coefficient between soil organic matter and total nitrogen content was very high with a ratio of 5: 1, and they both had close correlations to most major and trace soil elements. There was a significantly positive correlation between soil Ca and Mg, and a significantly negative correlation to the values of other soil indicators. In addition, there was a significantly positive correlation between soil K, Na, and other metal element content except for Ca and Mg.

Key words: soil property, alpine area, soil formation, Qiangtang Plateau, Tibetan Plateau