地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (12): 2505-2520.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201712019

• 犯罪地理专栏 • 上一篇    

中国拐卖儿童犯罪的时空特征与形成机制——基于“成功案例”的管窥

李钢1,2(), 王会娟1,2, 谭然1,2, 付莹1,2   

  1. 1. 西北大学城市与环境学院,西安 710127
    2. 陕西省地表系统与环境承载力重点实验室,西安 710127
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-04 修回日期:2017-09-27 出版日期:2017-12-15 发布日期:2018-01-18
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李钢(1979- ),男,四川成都人,副教授,博士生导师,主要从事灾害地理、旅游地理和社会地理研究。E-mail:lig@nwu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目(16YJAZH028);陕西省社科界重大理论与现实问题研究项目(2016C059)

Spatiotemporal characteristics and formation mechanism of child trafficking in China based on "successful cases"

Gang LI1,2(), Huijuan WANG1,2, Ran TAN1,2, Ying FU1,2   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
    2. Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Earth Surface System and Environmental Carrying Capacity, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
  • Received:2017-06-04 Revised:2017-09-27 Online:2017-12-15 Published:2018-01-18

摘要:

拐卖儿童犯罪对社会和家庭产生重要影响,成为近年来社会关注的焦点。目前相关实证研究较少,整体认识不足。基于公益平台的成功案例库,借助数理统计与空间分析方法,从犯罪地理学的视角管窥中国拐卖儿童犯罪的时空特征与形成机制。研究发现:被拐年龄与性别关系密切,易拐儿童低龄化,被拐几率与找回几率随年龄波动明显;拐出地与拐入地均乡村多于城镇,拐卖迁移主要发生在乡—乡之间;被拐人数年变化呈现“倒勺状”,可分为四个阶段;年内变化受气温及空气质量影响,也与人口迁移流动频率和范围等有关;平均被拐时长为21.82年,年龄与被拐时长之间存在微弱的负相关;识别了拐出拐入的主体省(市)域及其路径组对,揭示了拐卖的“回流”与地理邻近效应;地区间各要素的“梯度”差异有利于“推—拉”作用产生拐卖迁移。同时,从不同角度和层面提出防控建议。

关键词: 拐卖儿童犯罪, 时空分布, 犯罪路径, 形成机制, 中国

Abstract:

Criminal child trafficking has caused huge losses and damage to society and families, which, in recent years, has drawn considerable attention. Current studies on the topic have made little progress because of the lack of relevant empirical research and overall knowledge, particularly about the macroscopic features of child trafficking in China. Consequently, based on 647 pieces of data for children who have successfully found their relatives, including parents, through the online public platform "Baobeihuijia", the sociodemographic and spatiotemporal features and formation mechanism of child trafficking in China were examined. SPSS and ArcGIS analysis methods were used from the perspective of crime geography. This study found that the main purpose of trafficking was for forced adoption, and the total number of trafficked male children is higher than that of female children. The trafficking ages are closely related to sex, with younger ages at higher risk. The probability of being abused and the probability of recovery fluctuates notably with age. Trafficking migration happens more frequently between rural areas. The number of child trafficking cases since 1930 generally increased with some fluctuations and peaked during the 1980s and 1990s. The monthly changes are affected by temperature and air quality, and are related to the frequency and intensity of population migration. The average period of captivity of a trafficked child is 21.28 years, and there is a weak negative correlation between age and length of captivity. The core areas of supply are concentrated in Southwest China, while those of demand are mainly in South China and North China. The two crime flows have formed between the three crime areas: the southern route was from Southwest to South China and the northern route was from Southwest to North China. Much larger flows of child trafficking occurred on the southern route than on the northern route. Both supply and demand crimes were found in the country's half southeast of the Heihe-Tengchong Line. Child trafficking presented a geographical proximity effect, and reflux phenomena occurred in several provinces and cities. The "gradient" difference of the factors between different regions is favorable to the "push-pull" effect of trafficking migration. Finally, recommendations are offered from different aspects and levels for crime prevention and control.

Key words: child trafficking, spatiotemporal distribution, trafficking route, formation mechanism, China