地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (2): 353-365.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802009

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

轮轴式产业集群内企业网络特征及形成机理——基于2014年奇瑞汽车集群实证分析

陈肖飞1(), 苗长虹1, 潘少奇2, 艾少伟1()   

  1. 1. 河南大学黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心暨黄河文明传承与现代文明建设河南省协同创新中心, 开封475001
    2. 河南大学商学院, 开封 475001
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-23 修回日期:2017-11-24 出版日期:2018-02-20 发布日期:2018-03-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:陈肖飞(1986- ),男,河南三门峡人,讲师,硕士生导师,主要从事产业集群与区域发展研究。E-mail: chenfei_niglas@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41430637,41401133,41671133),中国博士后科学基金面上项目(2017M622332),河南省博士后基金2017年项目

Characteristics and construction mechanism of enterprise networks in "Hub-and-Spoke" cluster: Empirical evidence from Chery cluster in 2014, China

Xiaofei CHEN1(), Changhong MIAO1, Shaoqi PAN2, Shaowei AI1()   

  1. 1. Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development & Collaborative Innovation Center on Yellow River Civilization of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China;
    2. Business School, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China
  • Received:2017-08-23 Revised:2017-11-24 Online:2018-02-20 Published:2018-03-10
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

随着全球经济格局调整和规则重构,全球“第四次产业转移浪潮”为中国轮轴式产业集群升级提供了一扇“区位机会窗口”。基于对以奇瑞汽车集群为代表的轮轴式产业集群实地调研,通过企业半结构式访谈和问卷调查,研究了2014年集群内部企业间的产业联系网络、创新合作网络和社会交流网络,深度刻画了企业网络结构特征和形成机理。研究发现:① 企业网络中心性较为突出,呈现显著的“核心—边缘”结构。说明以QR为代表的核心企业在集群内部拥有绝对的“市场权利”“技术权利”和“网络权利”,对企业网络形成具有重要的支配作用;② 企业网络整体发育层次较低,差异较大。其中产业联系网络发育水平相对较高,创新合作网络最低,说明企业间交往仍以产品垂直供货和水平分工协作为基础,虽然在核心企业主导下外围节点间存在社会交流现象但程度相对较弱,同时汽车生产系统技术差异及“小团体”“俱乐部”等现象也导致企业间创新合作网络的发育迟缓。③ 企业网络建构是地理临近性、关系异质性和认知互动性共同作用的结果。其中,企业地理空间接近和面对面交流为网络形成提供了基本条件,企业关系资产和行动者网络为网络形成提供了介质条件,企业技术关联和路径创造为网络形成提供了保障条件。

关键词: 轮轴式产业集群, 企业网络, 核心—边缘结构;, 奇瑞汽车集群

Abstract:

Along with the adjustment of world economic structure and the reconstruction of global rules, "the fourth wave of industrial transfer" in the world provides an opportunity window of "Hub-and-Spoke" cluster in China. Within the "Hub-and-Spoke" cluster, the division of labor and the strengthening of social relations gradually form complex enterprise networks. Taking Chery automobile cluster as a typical representative of "Hub-and-Spoke" cluster, this study is conducted based on in-depth interview and questionnaire survey for a long period time to measure the characteristics and the construction mechanism of enterprise networks. Some conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) Enterprise networks centrality is very prominent and networks presents a significant "core-periphery" structure. It is pointed out that the core enterprises represented by QR have the absolute "market rights", "technical rights" and "network rights" in the cluster, which have played an important role in the construction of the enterprise networks; (2) The overall development level of enterprise networks is relatively low, but the differences are large. Industrial network is relatively high, however, the innovation network is still the lowest. Vertical supply and horizontal division of products are still the main forms of enterprise communication. Although there is a phenomenon of social interaction among enterprises, the degree is relatively weak. At the same time, the technical differences in production system and the "small club" also lead to the slow development of the innovation network. (3) The construction of enterprise networks are the results of the interaction of the geographic proximity, the relationship heterogeneity and the cognitive interaction. Geographic spatial proximity and face-to-face communication provide the basic condition for network formation. Enterprise relationship assets and actor networks offer the medium conditions for network formation. Enterprise technology association and path creation furnish the guarantee conditions for network formation.

Key words: Hub-and-Spoke cluster, enterprise networks, core-periphery structure, Chery automobile cluster