地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (2): 366-378.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201802010

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于POI数据的长春市商业空间格局及行业分布

浩飞龙(), 王士君(), 冯章献, 于婷婷, 马丽   

  1. 东北师范大学地理科学学院,长春 130024
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-27 修回日期:2017-11-24 出版日期:2018-02-20 发布日期:2018-03-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:浩飞龙(1989- ),男,甘肃庆阳人,博士,讲师,主要从事城市地理与城乡规划研究。E-mail:haofl587@nenu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41630749,41571150,41471142);中国博士后科学基金项目(2017M621190)

Spatial pattern and its industrial distribution of commercial space in Changchun based on POI data

Feilong HAO(), Shijun WANG(), Zhangxian FENG, Tingting YU, Li MA   

  1. School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Received:2017-08-27 Revised:2017-11-24 Online:2018-02-20 Published:2018-03-10
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

商业网点的空间集聚与分散是零售商业活动的重要表现,其合理化布局对发展城市经济、满足居民消费需求发挥着重要作用。基于核密度估计、区位熵指数及Ripley's K函数分析法,以长春市中心城区商业类城市兴趣点(POI)数据为基础,在分析城市商业空间格局特征的基础上,进一步从行业空间分异的视角,研究城市商业空间的行业分布及集聚特征。结果表明:① 长春市商业网点空间分布的集聚特征显著,并呈现多中心的分布形态,基于道路格网单元的商业网点热点区分布与识别的商业密度中心分布总体一致;② 不同商业中心表现出不同的等级规模差异,整体等级规模结构较为合理;③ 零售行业视角下的城市商业空间“中心—外围”分异明显,且不同行业表现出了不同的空间集聚模式;④ 各行业多尺度的空间集聚表现不同,综合零售、家用电器等行业区位选择的空间尺度范围较大,纺织服装、文化体育等行业区位选择的尺度范围较小;⑤ 行业视角的专业化功能区块差异显著,成熟区块呈现多功能要素、多优势行业集聚特征,发展中区块功能较为单一。

关键词: POI数据, 商业空间, 零售行业, 集聚特征, 长春市

Abstract:

Commercial activity and its spatial structure are one of the important issues in urban geography and economic geography. The study of the industrial structure of commercial space helps to understand the formation of spatial structure of economic activities. In recent years, with wide use of geographical big data, it has become a new trend to study the spatial structure and location choice of commercial sites with a quantitative method. Based on the commercial POI (Point of Interest) data in the central district of Changchun, the study focuses on eight types of retailing industry: synthetic retail trade; food beverage and tobaccos; textiles, garments, doily consumer articles; culture and sports appliances and equipments; medicines and medical appliances; motor vehicles fuel and parts; household electric appliances and electronic products; hardware, furniture and decoration materials. The spatial pattern and its industrial distribution of commercial space were discussed in detail using kernel density estimation, location entropy analysis and Ripley's K function. The results show that: (1) the agglomeration of commercial sites is significant, and presents the multi-center pattern. In general, there are two main agglomeration centers: one is the "horseshoe-shaped" pattern with Railway Station, Renmin Squre, and Dama Road commercial centers in the core area; the other is the "islands" pattern with Hongqi Street, Guilin Road, etc. in the peripheral area, and the density centers show the gradient descending from the center to the periphery. (2) The hierarchical structure of the scale size is reasonable, which is mainly reflected in the stage of gathering from the single center to multicenter. There are more the first and second grade centers, and less third grade centers, while the third still presents the feature of small scale and slow development. Compared with the traditional commercial center grading, some regional commercial centers show significant scale advantage, and the quantity grade of commercial sites is higher than that of some of municipal-level commercial centers. (3) From the industry perspective, "core-periphery" spatial distribution of urban commercial space is obvious. The type of textile and apparel, food and beverage industries have high density agglomeration in core circle, while the automobile motorcycle, hardware furniture type is in surrounding regions, the others have a large scale of space density distribution, and show different spatial distribution patterns. (4) Each industry has different performances in multi-scale spatial agglomeration. Synthetic retail, household electric appliances, food beverage and tobaccos, medicines and medical appliances show the agglomeration features a large scale, with a wide range of location selection. Culture and sports, textile and apparel, hardware furniture and automobile motorcycle industries are located in a small space, with smaller location choice space. (5) Each industry has formed certain specialized function blocks, but has different regional specialization degrees. The mature districts generally have more advantage industries and more functions, while the function pattern of developing districts features a distinct single-focus approach.

Key words: POI, commercial space, retailing industry, aggregating feature, Changchun