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地理研究    2018, Vol. 37 Issue (3): 480-494     DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201803003
  专论与综述 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
论城市空间破碎化研究
朱佩娟1,2(),贺清云1(),朱翔1,2,崔树强1,吴小双1
1. 湖南师范大学资源环境科学学院,长沙 410081
2. 湖南师范大学地理空间大数据挖掘与应用湖南省重点实验室,长沙 410081
Research on urban space fragmentation
ZHU Peijuan1,2(),HE Qingyun1(),ZHU Xiang1,2,CUI Shuqiang1,WU Xiaoshuang1
1. Department of Resources and Environment Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
2. Key Laboratory of Geospatial Big Data Mining and Application, Hunan Province, Changsha 410081, China
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摘要 

空间破碎化是城市空间演进的客观现象,表现为城市空间单元碎化、空间分割加强、空间联系弱化和空间整体功能下降,具有空间形态的封闭性、空间联系的阻隔性和空间功能的失配性等特征,是城市品质提升和可持续发展的重要制约因素,是城市空间格局与过程分析的新内容。“空间破碎化”是对“景观破碎化”的拓展和深化,有助于从更为综合整体的空间视角研究城市。“空间破碎化”研究应遵循“格局过程刻画→形成机理分析→调控模式设计”的分析框架,围绕城市空间破碎化的概念、特征、测度、机理、动态模拟和调控模式等内容,采用景观指数、空间句法、多智能体情景模拟和地学信息图谱集成的方法进行多学科融贯的综合分析,可为制定城市发展政策、促进城市发展转型、实现城市可持续发展提供理论指导和方法支撑。

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朱佩娟
贺清云
朱翔
崔树强
吴小双
关键词 城市空间破碎化城市空间结构多学科融贯研究情景模拟地学信息图谱 
Abstract

Spatial fragmentation is an objective phenomenon in the evolution of urban space, which is characterized by the fragmentation of urban space unit, the strengthening of space segmentation, the weakening of spatial relations and the decline of the overall function of space. Spatial fragmentation has the characteristics such as the closure of space form, the barrier of spatial contact and the mismatch of spatial functions, which should be great obstacles to the improvement of urban quality and sustainable development. The study of urban space fragmentation is a new hot spot of urban spatial pattern and process research. "Space fragmentation" is an extension and deepening of the concept of "landscape fragmentation", which can help to study the city's complex giant system from a more integrated and holistic perspective. The study of "spatial fragmentation" should follow the analysis framework of "pattern process characterization, formation mechanism analysis and regulation mode design", and discuss the concept, characteristics, measure, mechanism, dynamic simulation and control mode of urban space fragmentation. The method of integrating landscape index, spatial syntax, multi-agent scene simulation and geo-informatic spectrum should be adopted, and a comprehensive analysis of multi-disciplinary integration should be carried out. The fragmentation measure of urban space can be divided into pattern measure, effect measure and risk measure and the global scale index and the type scale index can be used to characterize it. The formation mechanism of urban space fragmentation can be analyzed from the evolution of self-organization, the evolution of his organization and the co-evolution of self-organization and his organization based on factor organization, behavior subject and system structure, etc. The dynamic simulation of urban space fragmentation can be carried out from the two aspects of "natural development" and "regulatory intervention". The mode of urban space fragmentation can be divided into three modes: preventive regulation, patching regulation and integrative regulation. On the basis of defining the concept and characteristics of urban space fragmentation, this paper clarifies the contents and methods of urban space fragmentation research. The theoretical analysis framework of urban space fragmentation research is preliminarily established to provide theoretical guidance and method support for urban space structure from fragmentation to sustainable development.

Key wordsurban spatial fragmentation    urban spatial structure    multidisciplinary research    scene simulation    geo-informatic spectrum
收稿日期: 2017-10-14      出版日期: 2018-04-25
基金资助:国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAJ15B06-08);湖南省高校创新平台开放基金项目(13k033);湖南省重点学科地理学建设项目(2011001)
引用本文:   
朱佩娟, 贺清云, 朱翔等 . 论城市空间破碎化研究[J]. 地理研究, 2018, 37(3): 480-494.
ZHU Peijuan, HE Qingyun, ZHU Xiang et al . Research on urban space fragmentation[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2018, 37(3): 480-494.
链接本文:  
http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/10.11821/dlyj201803003      或      http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I3/480
Fig. 1  1998-2016年城市空间破碎化相关论文总数变化
Fig. 2  1998-2016年城市空间破碎化精选论文主题趋势
Fig. 3  城市空间破碎化的概念框架
城市空间破碎化 城市土地混合利用
解析 图示 解析 图示
空间
形态
强调其封闭性特征,形态“碎化”的内涵偏重于“分割”与“不连续”,而不一定只是“细碎” 强调其景观格局特征,形态“碎化”的内涵偏重于用地斑块的“细碎”,因较小尺度的用地混合而获得更丰富的景观特征
空间
功能
强调功能的“失谐”,由于与周边用地类型的兼容性差或地块内功能相对单一而体现出其孤立性 强调其类型的丰富性,多样化的类型组合是城市多样性的最直接体现
空间
联系
强调空间流的阻隔性,空间网络的欠缺造成人流、物流与能量流在空间上联系存在阻力 强调空间网络的完整性,为空间流提供更完整与丰富的网络体系
Tab.1  城市空间破碎化与土地混合利用
分析视角 尺度属性 测度指标 与城市空间破碎化的关系
空间形态的封闭性 全局尺度 边缘密度、廊道密度指数、景观破碎化指数等 主要反映空间斑块和廊道的总体质量状况。斑块形状、斑块密度及廊道对空间的分割能反映空间中异质斑块之间物质、能量、物种及其他信息交换的潜力及相互影响的强度。空间基质中斑块少、面积大,内部越稳定越趋向于封闭;对某类空间斑块而言,可具体表现为空间封闭的程度。空间斑块越封闭,破碎化水平越高
类型尺度 边缘密度、廊道密度指数、空间封闭度指数等
空间联系的阻隔性 全局尺度 可达性、网络连通度、网络环通度、空间连接度等 主要反映两个地区之间连接的便利程度,也表示空间互动的方便程度。空间连接越方便,破碎化水平越低。对整体的景观格局而言,空间形态的连续性.能反映蛙跳式开发的程度
类型尺度 可达性、网络连通度、网络环通度等
空间功能的失谐性 全局尺度 功能碎化指数、功能丰度指数、功能差异度指数等 功能配置应反映空间的规模经济要求,破碎化水平越高空间结构越不经济;一定区域内空间功能丰度低,意味着区域内空间功能趋向单一,相互之间比较孤立。各相邻地块之间空间功能差异性越大,功能类型多样性越高,空间功能混合性越好,空间孤立性降低。对局部地块的空间斑块而言,邻接兼容性越低,空间冲突[39]就越大,空间要素间的联系就越弱
类型尺度 功能丰度指数、功能差异度指数、邻接兼容指数等
Tab.2  城市空间破碎化格局测度指标体系
Fig. 4  城市空间破碎化效应及其测度
Fig. 5  基于DPSIR的城市空间破碎化风险测度框架
Fig. 6  城市空间破碎化形成机理
Fig. 7  城市空间破碎化综合整体性调控模式框架
Fig. 8  城市空间破碎化研究框架
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