1. Department of Resources and Environment Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China 2. Key Laboratory of Geospatial Big Data Mining and Application, Hunan Province, Changsha 410081, China
Spatial fragmentation is an objective phenomenon in the evolution of urban space, which is characterized by the fragmentation of urban space unit, the strengthening of space segmentation, the weakening of spatial relations and the decline of the overall function of space. Spatial fragmentation has the characteristics such as the closure of space form, the barrier of spatial contact and the mismatch of spatial functions, which should be great obstacles to the improvement of urban quality and sustainable development. The study of urban space fragmentation is a new hot spot of urban spatial pattern and process research. "Space fragmentation" is an extension and deepening of the concept of "landscape fragmentation", which can help to study the city's complex giant system from a more integrated and holistic perspective. The study of "spatial fragmentation" should follow the analysis framework of "pattern process characterization, formation mechanism analysis and regulation mode design", and discuss the concept, characteristics, measure, mechanism, dynamic simulation and control mode of urban space fragmentation. The method of integrating landscape index, spatial syntax, multi-agent scene simulation and geo-informatic spectrum should be adopted, and a comprehensive analysis of multi-disciplinary integration should be carried out. The fragmentation measure of urban space can be divided into pattern measure, effect measure and risk measure and the global scale index and the type scale index can be used to characterize it. The formation mechanism of urban space fragmentation can be analyzed from the evolution of self-organization, the evolution of his organization and the co-evolution of self-organization and his organization based on factor organization, behavior subject and system structure, etc. The dynamic simulation of urban space fragmentation can be carried out from the two aspects of "natural development" and "regulatory intervention". The mode of urban space fragmentation can be divided into three modes: preventive regulation, patching regulation and integrative regulation. On the basis of defining the concept and characteristics of urban space fragmentation, this paper clarifies the contents and methods of urban space fragmentation research. The theoretical analysis framework of urban space fragmentation research is preliminarily established to provide theoretical guidance and method support for urban space structure from fragmentation to sustainable development.
GuC, LiuF, W G. The structure of social space in Beijing in 1998: A socialist city in transition. , 2005, 26(2): 167-192.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.2747/0272-36184.108.40.206
The 1984 urban reforms in China introduced an urban land market and a housing market to Chinese cities and had profound impacts on urban structures. Using data from a 1998 survey and other sources in Beijing at the subdistrict (jiedao) level, this research found that differentiations of social areas were taking place in Beijing after over a decade of urban reforms. Unlike western cities with socioeconomic status and family status as dominant forces in forming social areas, Beijing began to experience the impact of differentiation of socioeconomic status (e.g., income gaps), and the family structure factor was ineffective in Beijing because of decades of family planning. Factor analysis revealed four factors that underlay the social-spatial structure in Beijing: (1) land-use intensity as the dominant factor displaying a concentric zonal pattern, (2) neighborhood dynamics, mainly composed of the floating population ratio, featuring a sectoral pattern, (3) socioeconomic status exhibiting a combination of sectoral and zonal patterns, and (4) ethnicity resembling a multiple nuclei pattern. Superimposing the four factors generated a complex urban mosaic in Beijing. Cluster analysis was used to classify the subdistricts into nine different social areas.
LiZ, WuF.Tenure-based residential segregation in post-reform Chinese cities: A case study of Shanghai. , 2008, 33(33): 404-419.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2008.00304.x
Abstract The Chinese cities, once characterised by egalitarianism, are becoming the most unequal cities in the world. However, little is known about the spatial implications of such a tremendous transition. This paper examines residential segregation in post-reform Shanghai. For the first time in studying Chinese cities, fine resolution data on the level of the residential committee, from the fifth population census conducted in 2000, are used. The spatial variation of housing tenure is found to be prominent. Most variables in the Index of Dissimilarity (ID) for housing tenure are above 0.5, while the spatial variation of ‘commodity housing purchased’ and ‘public housing rental’ is as high as 0.7, indicating a remarkable concentration of various housing groups. No evidence, however, suggests a high extent of segregation of social groups comparable to the West such as in the UK and US. ID between rural migrants and local residents is just 0.2–0.4. ID between residents with low-level and high-level educational attainment is around 0.3. In terms of hukou (household registration) status, educational attainment and housing tenure, a division between the central city and its surrounding areas is identified. Most communities are characterised by homogeneous tenure and heterogeneous population. In all, post-reform urban China is characterised by tenure-based residential segregation. Through market-oriented housing consumption, a new stratified sociospatial structure is in the making; its outcome, however, will continue to be shaped by the sustained impact of institutions such as hukou and work units.
[FuGan, XiaoNengwen, QiaoMenfpin, et al.Spatial-temporal changes of landscape fragmentation patterns in Beijing in the last two decades. , 2017, 37(8): 1-12.]
AngelS, ParentJ, Civco DL.The fragmentation of urban landscapes: Global evidence of a key attribute of the spatial structure of cities, 1990-2000. , 2012, 24(1): 249-283.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956247811433536
The fragmentation of urban landscapes – or the inter-penetration of the built-up areas of cities and the open spaces in and around them – is a key attribute of their spatial structure. Analyzing satellite images for 1990 and 2000 for a global sample of 120 cities, we find that cities typically contain or disturb vast quantities of open spaces equal in area, on average, to their built-up areas. We also find that fragmentation, defined as the relative share of open space in the urban landscape, is now in decline. Using multiple regression models, we find that larger cities are less fragmented, that higher-income cities are more fragmented, that cities with higher levels of car ownership are less fragmented, and that cities that constrain urban development are less fragmented. We recommend that making room for urban expansion in rapidly growing cities should take into account their expected fragmentation levels.
[ZhouGuohua, HeYanhua.Characteristics and influencing factors of urban land expansion in Changsha. , 2006, 61(11): 1171-1180.]
Rotem-MindaliO.Retail fragmentation vs. urban livability: Applying ecological methods in urban geography research. , 2012, 35(1-2): 292-299.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0143622812000847
Retail affects city livability; it is one of the urban elements that draws individuals to the city and it has a direct effect on inhabitants- quality of life. Neighboring municipalities often struggle to attract both consumers and investors to the local retail centers. Therefore, retail development has become an arena of competition of municipalities over retail entrepreneurs; consequently, municipalities occasionally facilitate planning and developing these specific land uses. Overcrowded and fragmented (or over-splitting) planned retail centers on the municipal level are considered one of the widespread outcomes in Israel, mostly due to real-estate pressures. This implies developing retail centers in locations which might create unsuccessful centers, as well as imposing burdens on neighboring land use, and on mobility and accessibility in the city. The concept of a fragmented urban area is actually borrowed from ecology, but it is not the only ecological concept adopted in the study of urban environments. Various studies explain and address the urban environment as an ecological system, such as city as organism and metabolism of cities. This paper takes the approach of adopting elements from ecology research into urban geography research to study spatial fragmentation. The research will analyze the spatial location of retail centers on the municipal level according to the different dimensions constructing habitat fragmentation in ecology research, using a GIS system that facilitates the spatial analysis of landscape patches, and using least-cost modeling often in support of habitat modeling, biodiversity conservation and forest management.
[WeiYaping, ZhangChen, ZhangZongyi, et al.An index method of assessing construction-land fragmentation in urban areas. , 2011, 35(6): 41-49.]
BolayJ, PedrazziniY, RabinovichA, et al.Urban environment, spatial fragmentation and social segration in Latin America: Where does innovation lie?. , 2005, 29(4): 627-645.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0197397504000517
To “review the urban question” in terms of sustainable development, the premise is formulated that improving infrastructures, equipment and services to preserve the natural and built urban environment is costly and generates expenses of all kinds—at economic and social levels. Without the introduction of equalisation mechanisms, these expenses will increase inequalities between different parts of the urban population. As confirmed by 2 Latin American case studies in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and La Paz Bolivia, the quality of urban environment depends directly on improving living conditions for the resident population. The aim is to assist the poor in developing a rubbish disposal service for the families living in the informal settlements of La Paz, or to extend water supply to the poorer areas on the outskirts of Buenos Aires. The collective benefits of these “innovations” are self-evident. However, understanding the environmental issues involved, and evaluating the social impact of these innovations, means examining what motivates their implementation. The first difficulty was in finding financial and economic information on the global cost of the new technologies, due to the lack of managerial culture and the discretional attitude of private enterprises and public administration. A second observation is that the social dimension of the environmental upgrading process in Latin America cities has been neglected by the main urban decision-makers. In all the contexts, the evolution of the projects’ implementation clearly demonstrates that social issues cannot be dissociated from political ones. Although the players themselves often find it difficult to estimate economic costs, these are nonetheless real and represent burdens that should be distributed equitably among the beneficiaries of services; but which are, in practice, often viewed in terms of profit. This leads to conflicts between different population groups, the political authorities and private intermediaries. Rather than viewing technological action as an unique “source” of innovation, we must consider its global dimension via the social practices it generates. On the other hand, we should reposition every specific event in its immediate environment and see how it reflects contemporary macro-social processes, in a world of “globalisation”.
CoyM.Gated communities and urban fragmentation in Latin America: The Brazilian experience. , 2006, 66(1-2): 121-132.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10708-006-9011-6
Since the mid-1970s, gated housing areas of the privileged have been spreading in Latin American cities. They have to be seen as a visible consequence of the deepening social disparities within Latin American societies and the resulting fragmentation of urban space. Condom铆nios fechados (Brazil) or barrios cerrados (Argentina) can be typified following different criteria, such as formation, location, size, fittings, construction typology, as well as social structure. Three groups of actors influence the process of their expansion: the real estate companies, for which the new form of living offers an attractive market segment, the target groups, whose increasing expectations regarding security and living comfort need to be met, and the public authorities, who have to find adequate responses concerning the further orientation of urban development. Based on case studies from Brazil, the paper will discuss the different phases of gated community expansion and the reasons why this is happening. Their internal structure and differentiation, as well as consequences for socio-spatial development and urban planning will also be dealt with.
[MaKeming, FuBojie.Landscape pattern and fragmentation in Donglingshan Montane Region. , 2000, 24(3): 320-326.]
Carsjens GJ, Knaap W V D. Strategic land-use allocation: dealing with spatial relationships and fragmentation of agriculture. , 2002, 58(2-4): 171-179.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169204601002195
In The Netherlands, a debate continues to take place on how to allocate the available space among several types of land use. The rural area is under constant pressure from urban developments. Multi-purpose land use is becoming more and more important. Land-use allocation problems can be identified as complex planning problems, with a large number of stakeholders involved. Therefore the decisions made with respect to land use must be clear and transparent to these stakeholders. Various methods have been developed to support land allocation issues. Typically, however, the analysis of topological relationships, initiated by biophysical and socio-economic processes, and the spatial configuration of different land uses, is often neglected, especially for agricultural planning. Neglecting the spatial configuration and these relationships can result in spatial fragmentation of land use, thus endangering sustainable land use. This paper focuses on a method to address land-use allocation issues where the topological relationships are taken into account. The method is implemented in a Geographical Information System (GIS). Two cases for Dutch agriculture are discussed.
Ribeiro MC, Muylaert R DL, DodonovP, et al. Dealing with Fragmentation and Road Effects in Highly Degraded and Heterogeneous Landscapes, , 2017-06-10.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301200975_Dealing_with_Fragmentation_and_Road_Effects_in_Highly_Degraded_and_Heterogeneous_Landscapes
KrellenbergK, LinkF, WelzJ, et al.Supporting local adaptation: The contribution of socio-environmental fragmentation to urban vulnerability. , 2014, 55(12): 61-70.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0143622814001866
61Socio-environmental fragmentation and vulnerability can theoretically be combined.61Fragmentation can strengthen the urban dimension within a vulnerability analysis.61The approach assists the identification of context-specific adaptation needs.
[ShenQingji, XuSuyuan.Urban diversity and compactness: Characterization and relationship. , 2009, 33(10): 25-34.]
BadeF, BodeE, CutriniE.Spatial fragmentation of industries by functions. , 2015, 54(1): 215-250.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00168-014-0652-y
We explore to what extent key functions in manufacturing are spatially clustered with, or dispersed from,each other within industries, and how these clustering or dispersion patterns have changed during recent decades. Estimating the levels and changes (1992–2007) of localizations and colocalizations of selected functions (production, headquarter services, R&D) within 27 West German industries by means of K densities, we identify two broad groups of industries. In “fragmenting” industries,which account for one half of manufacturing employment, functions were more clustered with each other than the industry as a whole after the fall of the Iron Curtain but have, in accordance with regional theories of spatial fragmentation, been unbundled spatially from each other subsequently. In “integrating” industries, by contrast, which account for one third of manufacturing employment, functions were initially dispersed from each other but have subsequently been rebundled spatially with each other. We hypothesize that this spatial rebundling is a consequence of offshoring, i.e., international fragmentation.
BereitschaftB, DebbageK.Regional variations in urban fragmentation among U.S. metropolitan and megapolitan areas. , 2014, 7(2): 119-147.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12061-013-9092-9
In this paper we investigate the regional variations in the fragmentation of urban landcover among 86 metropolitan areas and 19 megapolitan areas in the United States. Urban fragmentation was evaluated using nine spatial metrics that collectively quantified the continuity and shape complexity of urban landcover. Spatial metrics were calculated for each metropolitan and megapolitan area using a high urban threshold containing the urban core and surrounding suburbs, and a low urban threshold that further encompassed the outer exurban fringe. A principal component analysis was used to collapse the nine spatial metrics into two components of urban form: “shape complexity”, which describes the porosity of the urban fabric, and urban “continuity”, which represents the aggregation of urban patches or pixels. Urban “continuity”, and seven of nine spatial metrics, varied significantly by U.S. census region. A hot-spot analysis further revealed a high degree of spatial autocorrelation, with metropolitan areas in the Northeast and South regions generally exhibiting a more fragmented urban landscape than those in the Midwest or West regions. Relative to metropolitan areas, megapolitan areas exhibited more complex and fragmented patterns of urban landcover, presumably due to the high level of inter- and intra-urban polycentricism at this broader scale.
WhiteR.Book review: Self-organization and the city, by Juval Portugali. , 2007, 6(3): 220-222.http://www.oalib.com/paper/2781330
The main objective of Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society is to foster links between basic and applied research relating to discrete dynamics of complex systems encountered in the natural and social sciences. The journal intends to stimulate publications directed to the analyses of computer generated solutions and chaotic in particular, correctness of numerical procedures, chaos synchronization and control, discrete optimization methods among other related topics. The journal provides a channel of communication between scientists and practitioners working in the field of complex systems analysis and will stimulate the development and use of discrete dynamical approach.
[HeYanhua, TangChenli, ZhouGuohua, et al.The present situation and rrgulation modes of rural settlements in central China. , 2014, 29(3): 95-102.]
AlexanderB, HubersC, SchwanenT, et al.Anything, anywhere, anytime? Developing indicators to assess the spatial and temporal fragmentation of activities. , 2011, 38(4): 678-705.http://epb.sagepub.com/lookup/doi/10.1068/b35132
Developments in transportation and information and communication technologies (ICTs) have facilitated the process labeled activity fragmentation. In this process, the weakened associations between activity, time, and place that ICTs made possible facilitate the disintegration of activities into smaller subtasks, which can then be performed at different times and at different locations. However, until now discussion of the fragmentation of activity hypothesis has been limited to the theoretical domain and largely absent from the empirical domain. In the study reported here we connect both domains by (1) developing a set of measures of activity fragmentation and (2) applying them to study the fragmentation of the activity of paid work using combined activity, travel, and communication diary data collected in the Netherlands in 2007 in order to assess the performance of these indicators. The results show that the indicators differentiate between the multiple facets of activity fragmentation (such as the number, dispersion, and configuration of fragments). The preliminary analyses also suggest that, although the temporal fragmentation of activities appears to be or to have become more common, spatial activity fragmentation is rather limited.