1. College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China 2. Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China 3. Longqiao College of Lanzhou University of Finance and Economics, Lanzhou 730101, China
The paper, from the perspective of social network, explores the spatial patterns and evolutionary characteristics of the global trade network and focuses on the Chinese community ownership and their strategic implications by adopting social network indexes, including centrality, community classification and structure entropy. The results show that: (1) The structure of global trade network evolved towards complexity, specifically shifted from "one super state and more powerful countries" towards"multi-polarization". The collective rise of developing countries has weakened the monopoly position of traditional European and American countries in the network, leading to increasing complexity of the network structure. (2) Community evolution of the global trade network has experienced the dominant stage of the developed countries, the budding stage of the Asian region, the separated stage of the Asian Community and the fourth stages of "ripartite confrontation". During the evolution, China has gradually moved from being dominated to the center of the stage. (3) The diversification of trade market is a common characteristic of foreign trade countries. In the process of global market segmentation, China, the United States, and Germany gradually formed a relationship of "dislocation competition", and their core interests are concentrated around the surrounding areas. (4) The areas of Asia-Pacific Region, Middle East, Africa and Latin America have become the play field of China to compete other powers for local trade markets. Currently, the Asia-Pacific market is the preferred market for China's global trade, and China should extend the market to the Middle East, Africa and Latin America through "Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road", In this way, economic advantage can be transformed into global strategic influence. Meanwhile, direct conflicts and confrontations with the core interests of the United States should be avoided.
. 1985-2015年全球贸易网络格局的时空演化及对中国地缘战略的启示[J]. 地理研究,
2018, 37(3): 495-511.
. Spatial and temporal patterns of evolution of global trade networks during 1985-2015 and its enlightenment to China's geostrategy[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH,
2018, 37(3): 495-511.
[ZhengJun, ZhangYongqing, HuangXia.Evolution of the maritime silk road trade network structural characteristics in 2000-2014. , 2017, (3): 154-165.]
SnyderD, Kick EL.Structural position in the world system and economic growth, 1955-1970: A multiple-network analysis of transnational interactions. , 1979, 84(5): 1096-1126.https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/226902
This paper addresses world-system/dependency theories of differential economic growth among nations. We grant that such perspectives have considerable analytic potential but have serious reservations concerning their current empirical status. Our croticisms focus particularly on the absence of evidence on the theoretically specified structural positions (core, semiperiphery, periphery) in the world system and the dynamic relations among them. After indicating why extant quantitative studies that claim to represent "position" are inadecuate, we propose that blockmodel analyses of social structure through multiple networks address world-system formulations far more appropriately. We present a blockmodel of the world system circa 1965 that is based on four types of international networks: trade flows, military interventions, diplomatic relations, and conjoint treaty memberships. While we invite replications with additional network data, this blockmodel provides strong evidence for a core-semiperiphery-periphery structure. We then report regression analyses of the efects of these structural positions on nations' economic growth (change in GNP per capita) from 1955 to 1970. Net of other plausible determinants, these effects are large in magnitude and entirely consistent with world-system/dependency theories theories. Further analyses reinforce the interpretation of these findings as the structural, accumulative advantage of location in the core over that in the periphery. Substantively, our results that exogenetic theories of economic growth are even more powerful than previous analyses have indicated. Moreover, they demonstrate the natural wedding of a conceptual framework (the world system) with an empirically grounded theory of social structure (blockmodel analysis), which has applicability much beyond issues of economic growth.
GarlaschelliD, Loffredo MI.Patterns of link reciprocity in directed networks. , 2004, 93(26): 268701.https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.268701
We address the problem of link reciprocity in directed networks, the tendency of pairs of vertices to form mutual links between each other. We propose a new measure of reciprocity that, differently from the traditional one, allows the ordering of networks according to their actual degree of correlation between mutual links. Remarkably, we find that networks of the same kind display similar values of the reciprocity, and that the reciprocity-based ordering of a very large set of real networks identifies groups of networks of the same nature. In all cases, we find that real networks are either correlated or anticorrelated, whereas current models always yield no correlation in the reciprocity structure. This leads us to introduce a more general framework where the probability of drawing a link is conditioned by the presence of the mutual one. In some of the studied networks, we find that the conditional connection probability is constant and we discuss its effects on the topology.Garlaschelli, D; Loffredo, M I
Serrano MÁ, BoguñáM, VespignaniA.Patterns of dominant flows in the world trade web. , 2007, 2(2): 111-124.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11403-007-0026-y
The large-scale organization of the world economies is exhibiting increasing levels of local heterogeneity and global interdependency. Understanding the relation between local and global features calls for analytical tools able to uncover the global emerging organization of the international trade network. Here we analyze the world network of bilateral trade imbalances and characterize its overall flux organization, unraveling local and global high-flux pathways that define the backbone of the trade system. We develop a general procedure capable to progressively filter out in a consistent and quantitative way the dominant trade channels. This procedure is completely general and can be applied to any weighted network to detect the underlying structure of transport flows. The trade fluxes properties of the world trade web determine a ranking of trade partnerships that highlights global interdependencies, providing information not accessible by simple local analysis. The present work provides new quantitative tools for a dynamical approach to the propagation of economic crises.
BhattacharyaK, MukherjeeG, SaramäkiJ, et al.The international trade network: Weighted network analysis and modelling. , 2008, 41(2): 139-147.
FagioloG, ReyesJ, SchiavoS.The evolution of the world trade web: A weighted-network analysis. , 2010, 20(4): 479-514.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00191-009-0160-x
This paper employs a weighted network approach to study the empirical properties of the web of trade relationships among world countries, and its evolution over time. We show that most countries are characterized by weak trade links; yet, there exists a group of countries featuring a large number of strong relationships, thus hinting to a core-periphery structure. Also, better-connected countries tend to trade with poorly-connected ones, but are also involved in highly-interconnected trade clusters. Furthermore, rich countries display more intense trade links and are more clustered. Finally, all network properties are remarkably stable across the years and do not depend on the weighting procedure.
Blondel VD, Guillaume JL, LambiotteR, et al.Fast unfolding of communities in large networks. , 2008, 10: 155-168.
ZhongW, AnH, GaoX, et al.The evolution of communities in the international oil trade network. , 2014, 413(11): 42-52.http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1636007
61In our quantitative analysis, the globalization of oil trade is intensifying.61The partition of the relationship-only network is less than the trade volume network.61Communities in the relationship-only network are more stable than those in the trade volume network.61There are two turning points with different causes and features.61Analysis of globalized oil trade reveals the depth of detail that improves policy advice.