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地理研究    2018, Vol. 37 Issue (3): 512-526     DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201803005
  研究论文 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
中国铁路运输效率时空演化特征及机理研究
刘斌全1,2(),吴威2(),苏勤1,张璐璐2
1. 安徽师范大学国土资源与旅游学院,芜湖 241000
2. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,流域地理学重点实验室,南京 210008
Spatio-temporal evolution characteristics and mechanism of railway efficiency in China
LIU Binquan1,2(),WU Wei2(),SU Qin1,ZHANG Lulu2
1. College of Territorial Resources and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, Anhui, China
2. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
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摘要 

铁路是综合运输体系的重要组成部分之一,合理高效的铁路运输系统有利于发挥交通运输的支撑引领作用,运输效率问题的探讨显得尤为重要。以铁路局为研究单元,使用超效率SBM-Malmquist指数方法,对2005-2013年中国铁路运输效率的时空演化特征及影响机理进行了分析。研究表明:① 中国铁路运输效率呈波动上升趋势,但总体水平不高,规模效率是造成这两种现象的主要原因。② 铁路运输效率呈现东部高于中部,中部高于西部的空间分布格局。与此同时,高、中、低值区内部运输效率的空间分布存在差异,各铁路局效率演化的类型也不尽相同。③ 通过对研究期内大规模建设高铁的铁路局运输效率演化进行分析,发现近些年大规模高速铁路的建设并没有引起运输效率和生产率的较大变动。④ 从地域空间视角,区位条件、资源势差、地形条件以及城镇格局与城镇化水平等外部因素对运输效率空间格局及其演化产生着重要作用。

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刘斌全
吴威
苏勤
张璐璐
关键词 运输效率时空演化影响机理铁路运输中国 
Abstract

Railway is one of the most important components of the integrated transportation system. A functional and efficient railway system can be conducive to sustainable development of society and economy, thus highlighting the importance of studies on rail efficiency. In this paper, we study the spatio-temporal evolution of China's railway transportation efficiency during 2005-2013 using the ultra-efficient SBM model and Malmquist index method. Hence, the characteristics and influencing mechanism of railway efficiency in China are also analyzed. The results are as follows: (1) the SBM model analysis of 18 Chinese rail bureaus indicates that rail efficiency increased from 0.724 to 0.778 due to a series of measures taken by the governments in recent years, such as reorganization, deregulation, and innovation. Scale efficiency increased by 1.93% per year and technical efficiency by 0.27% per year, indicating scale efficiency's major influence. We also find that the gap between 18 bureaus' efficiency narrowed in 2005-2013, standard deviation dropped from 0.287 in 2005 to 0.23 in 2013, and the coefficient of variation dropped from 0.396 to 0.295. (2) The spatial distribution pattern of railway transportation efficiency suggests that the railway system in the eastern region is more efficient than that of the central region, which, in turn, is more efficient than that of the western region. In addition, there are differences in the spatial distribution of the internal transport efficiency in the high-, medium-, and low-value areas, while the types of rail efficiency are also different. According to the characteristics of the railway bureaus' efficiency change, the 18 railway bureaus can be divided into three types: equilibrium, fluctuation, and growth. (3) Through the analysis of railway evolution, we find that the construction of large-scale high-speed railways in recent years has not caused significant changes in transport efficiency and productivity. (4) From the perspective of transportation geography, the location conditions, resource potential difference, topography, and urbanization pattern affect the spatial pattern of transport efficiency and its evolution.

Key wordstransportation efficiency    spatio-temporal evolution    influence mechanism    railway transportation    China
收稿日期: 2017-10-14      出版日期: 2018-04-25
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41271137)
引用本文:   
刘斌全, 吴威, 苏勤等 . 中国铁路运输效率时空演化特征及机理研究[J]. 地理研究, 2018, 37(3): 512-526.
LIU Binquan, WU Wei, SU Qin et al . Spatio-temporal evolution characteristics and mechanism of railway efficiency in China[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2018, 37(3): 512-526.
链接本文:  
http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/10.11821/dlyj201803005      或      http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I3/512
Fig. 1  2005-2013年中国铁路技术效率及其分解
局别 2005年 2006年 2007年 2008年 2009年 2010年 2011年 2012年 2013年
东部
高值区
北京铁路局 1.020 1.006 1.019 1.014 1.077 1.085 1.078 1.068 1.040
太原铁路局 1.049 1.223 1.257 1.295 1.233 1.259 1.356 1.374 1.427
郑州铁路局 1.069 1.152 1.160 1.117 1.133 1.130 1.090 1.128 1.183
济南铁路局 1.023 1.010 1.016 1.105 1.071 1.043 1.094 1.100 1.069
上海铁路局 1.009 1.000 0.850 0.836 1.004 1.019 1.015 1.011 1.011
南昌铁路局 1.034 1.027 1.054 1.026 1.014 1.100 1.058 1.001 0.684
广州铁路公司 1.120 1.087 1.051 1.157 1.134 1.031 1.094 1.124 1.072
中部
中值区
沈阳铁路局 0.585 0.622 0.626 0.620 0.621 0.670 0.704 0.637 0.629
呼和浩特铁路局 0.386 0.413 0.403 0.588 0.800 1.039 0.682 0.583 1.004
西安铁路局 1.053 0.785 0.806 0.861 0.850 0.803 0.921 0.866 0.845
南宁铁路局 0.592 0.638 0.654 0.662 0.656 0.661 0.722 0.647 0.580
成都铁路局 0.570 0.589 0.598 0.624 0.618 0.605 0.656 0.580 0.633
兰州铁路局 0.646 0.700 0.724 0.742 0.824 0.771 0.866 0.867 0.825
武汉铁路局 0.827 1.012 1.002 0.792 0.725 0.691 0.877 0.781 0.934
西部
低值区
哈尔滨铁路局 0.341 0.362 0.363 0.357 0.369 0.374 0.409 0.382 0.375
昆明铁路局 0.273 0.302 0.317 0.361 0.360 0.390 0.424 0.387 0.412
乌鲁木齐铁路局 0.550 0.578 0.556 0.586 0.550 0.566 0.605 0.578 0.666
青藏铁路公司 0.259 0.230 0.312 0.309 0.368 0.378 0.416 0.418 0.429
总计 均值 0.724 0.734 0.734 0.741 0.763 0.773 0.793 0.762 0.778
标准差 0.396 0.379 0.359 0.326 0.314 0.310 0.279 0.310 0.295
变异系数 0.287 0.279 0.264 0.241 0.240 0.240 0.222 0.236 0.230
Tab.1  2005-2013年中国各铁路局技术效率值
Fig. 2  2005-2013年技术效率及其分解变化率
Fig. 3  2005-2013年中国铁路运输效率空间格局及演变
Fig. 4  2005-2013年中国各铁路局运输效率变化类型
局别 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013
平衡型 北京铁路局 1.038 1.136 1.055 1.001 1.064 0.996 0.981 1.006
成都铁路局 1.026 1.072 1.033 0.970 1.060 1.002 1.060 0.934
济南铁路局 1.069 1.138 1.155 0.895 1.023 1.008 1.015 0.999
南宁铁路局 1.266 1.103 1.038 0.960 1.072 0.971 1.022 0.962
沈阳铁路局 1.023 1.068 1.052 0.937 1.063 0.991 1.038 0.969
郑州铁路局 1.012 1.072 1.037 0.976 1.059 0.966 0.912 1.084
广州铁路公司 0.990 1.018 1.288 0.901 1.018 1.083 1.029 0.985
乌鲁木齐铁路局 1.331 1.077 1.051 0.962 1.082 1.004 1.086 0.944
哈尔滨铁路局 1.014 1.068 1.057 0.942 1.068 0.943 1.031 0.986
增长型 太原铁路局 2.005 1.254 1.221 0.923 1.043 1.154 1.063 0.968
青藏铁路公司 1.024 1.071 1.049 0.941 1.061 1.038 1.074 0.955
兰州铁路局 1.022 1.083 1.038 0.904 1.184 1.067 1.004 1.004
昆明铁路局 1.014 1.072 1.076 0.939 1.068 0.974 1.072 0.930
波动型 呼和浩特铁路局 1.038 1.081 1.114 0.933 1.162 1.156 0.954 0.756
武汉铁路局 1.005 1.083 1.242 0.949 1.096 1.003 1.068 0.936
西安铁路局 0.992 1.097 1.120 0.947 1.155 1.030 1.043 0.966
南昌铁路局 1.014 1.138 1.125 0.918 1.168 0.987 0.891 0.891
上海铁路局 1.045 1.212 1.179 0.893 1.128 1.052 0.993 0.921
Tab.2  2005-2013年各时间段中国各铁路局技术变化值
Fig. 5  铁路运输效率时空演化机理
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