Job-housing relationship is one of the most important topics in urban studies. Because of the institutional transformation in China, people who work inside-system or live in urban areas may enjoy more welfare than those who work outside-system or live in rural areas, which makes the social differentiation unique. Dividing people into groups based on attributes related to institutional transformation and investigating what influences different groups' different job-housing situations can help to understand the internal mechanism of how the job-housing situations form in urban China. Mainly according to the result data of a questionnaire with a sample size of 1029, which was finished in Guangzhou in 2016, with the help of the point of interest and the road distribution data of Guangzhou in 2014, as well as the sixth census data of Guangzhou, two-step cluster and multinomial logistic regression are employed to figure out the mechanism. After clustering, three typical job-housing models were defined according to job-housing distance as well as the location of working and living place, and three social groups were defined according to residents' socioeconomic status. And then multinomial logistic regression was employed to compare the different reasons that influence different groups' job-housing situation. The results show that compared to the job-housing balance group, the outside-system group who have steady jobs try to achieve the highest comfort and convenience with the lowest living cost and they are willing to bear long commute for better living condition, so their job-housing models are influenced by the built environment mostly. When it comes to inside-system group, different from the outside-system group, on the one hand, they live in the unit community in the past, so they are used to the close-knit communities, and influenced by community environment obviously, on the other hand, they are influenced by social characters obviously, including marital status and the number of students in the family. The group of people without steady jobs are those who engage in business or have retired and get an informal job again. They have the highest freedom while deciding where to work and where to live, so their decisions about job-housing location are only slightly influenced by some factors about built environment, and the job-housing balance ratio of this group is the highest. This research tries to figure out the mechanism of how different social groups determine their job-housing location in the context of China's unique institutional transformation, and act as references to urban planners and policy makers while putting forward some advice to optimize it.
. 转型期广州市居民职住模式的群体差异及其影响因素[J]. 地理研究,
2018, 37(3): 564-576.
. The diversity of different groups' job-housing patterns and their impact factors under the background of institutional transformation: A case study of Guangzhou, China[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH,
2018, 37(3): 564-576.
[MengXiaochen, WuJing, Shen Fanbu. The study review of urban jobs-housing balance. , 2009, 16(6): 23-28.]
CerveroR.Jobs-housing balancing and regional mobility. , 1989, 55(2): 136-150.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944368908976014
Despite the steady migration of jobs to the suburbs over the past decade, many suburban residents commute farther than ever. In this article I attribute the widening separation of suburban workplaces and the residences of suburban workers to several factors: fiscal and exclusionary zoning that results in an undersupply of housing; rents and housing costs that price many service workers out of the local residential market; and several demographic trends, including the growth in dual wage-earner households and career shifts. Case studies of metropolitan Chicago and San Francisco confirm the displacing effects of high housing costs and housing shortages. In addition, data from over 40 major suburban employment centers in the United States show that suburban workplaces with severe jobs-housing imbalances tend to have low shares of workers making walking and cycling trips and high levels of congestion on connecting freeways. I argue that inclusionary zoning, tax-base sharing, fair-sharing housing programs, and a number of incentive-base programs could reduce hobs-housing mismatches and go a long way toward safeguarding regional mobility for years to come.
CerveroR.Jobs-housing balance revisited: Trends and impacts in the San Francisco Bay Area. , 1996, 62(4): 492-511.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369608975714
Abstract Regions in California have recently set jobs-housing balance targets, to relieve traffic congestion and improve air quality. Critics of such targets charge that many factors prevent people from living near their workplaces, and that market forces, left unobstructed, work to produce balance-that is, people and firms co-locate to reduce imbalances. This article examines changes in the ratios of jobs to employed residents in 23 large San Francisco Bay Area cities during the 1980s. Imbalances were found to have declined generally, mainly because dormitory communities in 1980 had attracted businesses by 1990. However, imbalances generally worsened in job-surplus cities, particularly in the Silicon Valley. The research also reveals little association between jobs-housing balance and self-containment. Several Bay Area cities are nearly perfectly balanced, yet fewer than a third of their workers reside locally, and even smaller shares of residents work locally. Restricted housing production, especially in fast-growing cities, has in many instances raised housing prices, displacing workers and increasing average commute distances. Eliminating barriers to residential mobility and housing production would allow more housing and jobs to co-locate in the future.
CerveroR.Jobs-housing balance as public policy. , 1996, 50(10): 4-10.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/285632142_Jobs-housing_balance_as_public_policy
No abstract provided.
SunBingdong, HeZhou, ZhangTinglin, et al.Urban spatial structure and commute duration: An empirical study of China. , 2016, 10(7): 638-644.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15568318.2015.1042175
Urban traffic is embedded in and fundamentally shaped by the spatial pattern of urban land use, such as city size, density, extent of polycentricity, and the relationship between employment and residential locations. Previous evidence, mainly from European and American cities, suggests that the duration of commute trips increases with city size and the spatial separation between jobs and housing. On the other hand, the influences of density and polycentricity are less clear. Using data from 164 cities in China, this study empirically analyzes the relationship between city average commute duration and multiple dimensions of urban spatial structure. Controlling for economic, demographic, and infrastructure characteristics, the authors find that commute duration correlates positively with city size and jobs-揾ousing separation but negatively with density and polycentricity. As one of the earliest studies on commute cost in the rapidly urbanizing and motorizing Chinese cities, this study can help Chinese decision makers improve urban economic and environmental efficiency through spatial planning and policy making. Specifically, compact, mixed-use, and polycentric spatial development may ease the burden of commute, and thus substitute for unnecessary infrastructure investment and energy consumption during a period of rapid urban expansion in China.
Houston DS.Methods to test the spatial mismatch hypothesis. , 2005, 81(4): 407-434.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2005.tb00281.x/full
Abstract: The spatial mismatch hypothesis postulates that employment deconcentration within U.S. metropolitan areas goes some way toward explaining higher unemployment and lower wages among ethnic minority groups, since these groups are more likely to reside in central-city areas. However, little consensus has emerged on the importance of spatial mismatch in explaining disadvantage in the labor market. This article argues that conflicting evidence is the result of the variety of methods that have been used to test the spatial mismatch hypothesis. Moreover, it draws attention to a number of hitherto uncovered flaws in some of these methods that introduce systematic biases against finding evidence in support of the hypothesis. In light of these flaws, favored methods for future research are highlighted. Drawing on evidence from British conurbations that display similar spatial inequalities to U.S. metropolitan areas despite much smaller ethnic minority populations, the article contends that race does not lie at the heart of the spatial mismatch problem. Three areas in which the spatial mismatch hypothesis should be reconceptualized are identified: first, its emphasis should be on spatial, not racial, inequalities; second, it needs to differentiate between residential immobility and residential segregation, which are quite different; and third, it needs to recognize that the extent and the effect of spatial mismatch are distinct and should be measured separately.
[CaoXinyu.Examining the relationship between neighborhood built environment and travel behavior: A review from the US perspective. , 2015, 30(4): 46-52.]
ZhouJiangping, YinWang, LisaSchweitzer.Jobs/housing balance and employer-based travel demand management program returns to scale: Evidence from2012, 20(1): 22-35.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0967070X11001314
Research on environmental justice and social inclusion suggests that high-income wage earners may have better job access due to their greater choices in both housing and transportation markets. This study compares the jobs/housing balance and mode choice of different groups of employees of a large employer (27,113 employees) and those of the “reference groups” from comparable employees working for smaller employers in Los Angeles. Based on spatial and statistical analyses, this paper finds the following: a)Across all employee groups, a better jobs/housing balance was accompanied by higher income, as was likelihood to patronize Travel Demand Management (TDM) programs.b)Employees from the large employer had more options for carpooling and thus drove alone less, even after controlling overall housing stock, residential location, annual income, and/or commute time.c)Across all employee groups, good jobs/housing balance did not necessarily bring about green mode choice.d)Comprehensive TDM measures by the large employer significantly reduced employees’ dependence on driving, even in a region where autocommuting dominates. However, these measures were costly to implement.e)Different employee groups favor different TDM programs, and the patterns are marked by income. The above findings suggest that shared or consolidated TDM and housing programs, which pool smaller employers, might better promote green mode choice. Participating employers may also negotiate better deals for program implementation when these programs involve third-party transit agencies and contractors.
[ZhouSuhong, LiuYulan.The situation and transition of jobs-housing relocation in Guangzhou, China. , 2010, 65(2): 191-201.]
DaiDandan, ZhouChunshan, ChangDong.Spatial-temporal characteristics and factors influencing commuting activities of middle-class residents in Guangzhou city, China. , 2016, 26(3): 410-428.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11769-016-0806-1
The middle class in metropolitan Chinese cities has become an important social group. With the rapid development of urbanization and constant advancement of suburbanization, the middle class has increasingly come to influence city traffic. Research into middle-class commuting activities thus has practical significance for improving traffic congestion and reducing the commuting burden in metropolitan cities. Based on a dataset formed by 816 completed surveys, this paper analyzes the commuting mode, time and distance of middle-class residents in Guangzhou City using the descriptive statistical method. The results indicate that private cars are the main commuting mode, followed by public transport. Meanwhile, middle-class residents mainly undertake medium-short time and medium-short distance commuting. The study subsequently uses multilevel logistic regression and multiple linear regression models to analyze the factors that influence commuting mode choice, time and distance. The gender, age, number of family cars, housing source and jobs-housing balance are the most important factors influencing commuting mode choice; housing, population density, jobs-housing balance and commuting mode significantly affect commuting time; and transport accessibility, jobs-housing balance and commuting mode are the notable factors affecting commuting distance. Finally, this paper analyzes what is affecting the commuting activities of middle-class residents and determines the differences in commuting activity characteristics and influence factors between middle-class and ordinary residents. Policy suggestions to improve urban planning and urban management are also proposed.
[ChaiYanwei, ZhangYan, LiuZhilin.Spatial differences of home-work separation and the impacts of housing policy and urban sprawl: Evidence from household survey data in Beijing. , 2011, 66(2): 157-166.]
LiSiming, LiuYi.The jobs-housing relationship and commuting in Guangzhou, China: Hukou and dual structure. , 2016, 54: 286-294.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0966692316303283
61Hukouis essential for labour and housing markets segmentations in Chinese cities.61Non-hukouresidents tend to have more balanced jobs-housing relationship.61Suburb enterprises and urban villages play roles in the balanced jobs-housing.
[LiuWangbao, YanXiaopei, FangYuanping, et al.Related characteristics and mechanisms for excess commuting in Guangzhou. , 2008, 63(10): 1085-1096.]
CerveroR, KockelmanK.Travel demand and the 3Ds: Density, diversity, and design. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and1997, 2(3): 199-219.
ReidEwing, CerveroRobert.Travel and the built environment: A meta-analysis. , 2010, 16(3): 265-294.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/232859604_Travel_and_the_Built_Environment_A_Meta-Analysis?ev=auth_pub
Some of today’s most vexing problems, including sprawl, congestion, oil dependence, and climate change, are prompting states and localities to turn to land planning and urban design to rein in automobile use. Many have concluded that roads cannot be built fast enough to keep up with rising travel demand induced by the road building itself and the sprawl it spawns. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to summarize empirical results on associations between the built environment and travel, especially nonwork travel.
[LiuWangbao, YanXiaopei.Comparison of influencing factors for residential mobility between different household register types in transitional urban China: A case study of Guangzhou. , 2007, 26(5): 1055-1066.]
[ZhaoHui, YangJun, LiuChangping, et al.Measurement method and characteristics of spatial organization for jobs-housing misbalance: A case study of the effects of metro systems on jobs-housing misbalance in Beijing. , 2011, 30(2): 198-204.]