Hengduan Mountains have a high ecological value and offer resources for a variety of ecological services. However, the sustainable development and management of territory space has been challenged by increased human activities in recent years. In this paper, we used the land use data of Hengduan Mountains in1990, 2000, 2010 and 2015 to analyze the quantity and structural changes and spatial pattern changes on various types of territory space at different elevations, and reveal the characteristics and influencing factors of recent changes in various territory space patterns. The results show that, the territory space in the Hengduan Mountains has relatively high altitudes and significant vertical differences. Within the ecological-production-living space schema, the ecological space dominates the Hengduan Mountains, while the production and living space are mainly distributed in the southeastern Yunnan plateau. During the last 25 years, the ecological-production-living space changes in the Hengduan Mountains have been gradually accelerated and the regional differences have become more prominent. The agricultural production space has continuously decreased, while the industrial and mining production space has increased rapidly in the last 15 years. The living space has steadily increased, and the ecological space has increased with fluctuations. The territory space pattern in the study region is greatly restricted by the natural factors such as altitude and slope. The implementation of China Western Development strategy and Grain to Green Project have favorably promoted the changes of territory space pattern in this region. At present, the territory space in the Hengduan Mountains still faces the problems of destruction of ecological environment by high-altitude industrial and mining exploitation, soil erosion on sloping cultivated land and natural disaster. In the future, the national spatial optimization development in the Hengduan Mountains needs to strictly control the production space of industrial and mining industries, ensure the ecological space, carry out the protection of basic farmland, implement the reforestation of sloping cultivated land gradually, and strive to strengthen the construction of disaster prevention and mitigation system in living space.
. 近25年横断山区国土空间格局与时空变化研究[J]. 地理研究,
2018, 37(3): 607-621.
. Spatial pattern and spatio-temporal change of territory space in Hengduan Mountains region in recent 25 years[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH,
2018, 37(3): 607-621.
Tab.7 Standard deviation ellipse parameter of living space pattern年份
Fig. 8 横断山区生活空间标准差椭圆变化图
Fig. 9 横断山区自然要素与农业生产空间和生活空间关系图
Tab. 8 生产空间回归模型系数
Tab. 9 生活空间回归模型系数
PeluchaM, KvetonV, JilkovaJ.Territorial dimensions of agro-environmental measures and LFA in rural development policy in the Czech Republic. , 2013, 34(1): 91-103.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264837713000252
Outlined by the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP), the rural development policy enables the application of the territorial dimension. The goal of this paper is the analysis and determination of the appropriateness of the CAP development policy tools specifically within the Czech Republic. Furthermore, there is emphasis on the compliancy with the EU territorial cohesion objectives. The analyses concentrate on the agro-environmental measures (AEM) and less-favoured areas (LFA) support. In addition, payments during the 2004-2006 periods are evaluated. Relevant statistical indicators that include geographical, demographical, and economical are designated. Testing and verification of the indicators undertakes comparative examination based on municipal size-categories. The results of this process indicate that AEM and LFA schemes do not benefit the underdeveloped municipalities as intended by the EU territorial cohesion objectives.
FaludiA.A turning point in the development of European spatial planning? The 'Territorial Agenda of the European Union' and the 'First Action Programme'. , 2009, 71(1): 1-42.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S030590060800072X
The European Union has always had a territorial agenda, albeit implicit. Existing spatial planning systems in Europe, in particular French aménagement du territoire, have shaped the thinking about how to tackle it more systematically, lately under the flag of an EU territorial cohesion policy. Drawing on work by the European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON), the member states collectively have produced an ‘evidence-based’ document, ‘The territorial state and perspectives of the European Union’. This forms the basis of a political document entitled the ‘Territorial Agenda of the European Union: Towards a more competitive and sustainable Europe of diverse regions’. The subsequent First Action Programme came at a time when it appeared that the Treaty of Lisbon would make EU territorial cohesion policy official. This paper gives an account of the process, pointing out that a turning point has been reached, in that the member states have come to accept the need for EU territorial cohesion policy. Section 1 sets out the theoretical framework and the research approach. Section 2 sets the scene as regards the EU and it institutions. Section 3 looks at spatial planning systems in Europe and, in particular—since it has been instrumental in formulating EU regional and territorial cohesion policy—French aménagement du territoire. Section 4 identifies the implicit EU territorial agenda and how this has been articulated further by the member states formulating the ESDP. Section 5 gives an account of the fledgling EU territorial cohesion policy. Section 6 focuses on the member state initiative to produce the ‘evidence-based’ document, ‘The territorial state and perspectives of the European Union’, which forms the basis for the Territorial Agenda. As a background to this, the section discusses ESPON, which provided the research base for this undertaking. Sections 7 to 9 are about the Territorial Agenda process as such, particularly its making, the substantive policies and the institutional measures proposed therein, and the First Action Programme adopted in the wake of the Territorial Agenda. Section 10 identifies challenges ahead, followed by the final section, which explores issues whose resolution is not immediately in sight.
[XiJianchao, WangShoukun, ZhangRuiying.Restructuring and optimizing production-living-ecology space in rural settlements: A case study of Gougezhuang village at Yesanpo Tourism Attraction in Hebei province. , 2016, 31(3): 425-435.]
[ZhangHongqi, XuErqi, ZhuHuiyi.An ecological-living-industrial land classification system and its spatial distribution in China. , 2015, 37(7): 1332-1338.]
JanskyL, Ives JD, FuruyashikiK, et al.Global mountain research for sustainable development. , 2002, 12: 231-239.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378002000158
A questionnaire was sent to almost 600 people representing different target groups in Finland, to investigate their interest in obtaining global change scenarios. There was a 30% response rate to the questionnaire, of which 93% indicated that they could or might make use of scenarios. Priorities for scenarios differed between researchers and non-researchers. The research community required information over a wide spectrum of spatial and temporal resolutions and for time horizons ranging from 10 to 100 years. Non-researchers attached most importance to projections at low spatial and temporal resolution extending over time horizons up to 2025. Three of the five scenario types surveyed were regarded as of above-average importance by both researchers and nonresearchers: atmospheric composition, acidification and eutrophication, and climate. Socio-economic scenarios were also of interest to non-researchers but less so to researchers, while both groups expressed below-average interest in sea level scenarios. Overall, the questionnaire provided a valuable initial contact with potential scenario users as well as useful preliminary information about their likely scenario needs. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
C temperature increase in 2000-2008. The average temperature of all the year, spring, summer, autumn and winter exhibited an obvious increasing trend roughly centered in the area of Mt. Meili and the southernmost between Mt. Shaluli and Mt. Daxue with the velocity of 0.15 C 10a, 0.589 C 10a, 0.153 C 10a, 0.167 C 10a and 0.347 C 10a, respectively. And what\'s more, temperature increase is more obvious from lower to higher altitude. Precipitation is relatively more after the 1980s, which can be confirmed by a 29.84 mm increase in the 1990s, but it started to decrease after 2000. The average precipitation of all the year, spring, summer, autumn and winter changed by 9.09 mm 10a, 8.62 mm 10a,-1.5 mm 10a, 1.53 mm 10a and 1.47 mm 10a, respectively, roughly centered in the area of Mt. Meili and the southernmost between Mt. Shaluli and Mt. Daxue, and only the spring is significant at the 0.05 level. Under the influence of the longitudinal range-gorge, the regional trend in precipitation was on the decrease from southwest to northeast and from south to north in the Mts. Hengduan region. In summer monsoon, the regional trends of temperature and precipitation are 0.117 C 10a and 6.01 mm 10a, respectively, but the precipitation also started to decrease after 2000. There is also a 0.25 C 10a and 7.47 mm 10a increase of temperature and precipitation in winter monsoon.
[ZhangBailin, CaiWeimin, ZhangFengrong, et al.Spatio-temporal evolution of rural settlements and its driving forces in Yishui county, Shandong province from Sui dynasty to 1949. , 2016, 35(6): 1141-1150.]
[FangZhongquan, DingSibao.Principal function area division and innovation of regional planning in China. , 2008, 28(4): 483-487.]
Blum W EH. New York: CRC Press, 1998.
BankoG, MansbergerR.Assessment of 'non monetary values of land' for natural resource management using spatial indicators. Processdings of International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development, , 2001: 2-5.
FleskensL, DuarteF, EicherI.A conceptual framework for the assessment of multiple functions of agro- ecosystems: A case study of Tra's-os-Montes olive grove. , 2009, 25(1): 141-155.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0743016708000600
Multifunctionality in agriculture has received a lot of attention the last decade from researchers and policy-makers alike, perhaps most notably evidenced by the important changes made to the EU's Common Agricultural Policy. While the concept has been embraced by environmentalists envisioning positive impulses for decoupling and a range of local stakeholders recognizing implicit marketing opportunities involved, it has also been criticized as a mere argument in favour of disguised protectionism. Problematic in this discussion is the lack of an operationalising framework for the assessment of multiple functions. In this paper, we discuss such a framework and the role it can play in the decision-making process. Focusing on a case study about olive farming on sloping and mountainous land in northeastern Portugal, the contribution discusses methods for studying multiple functions of agro-ecosystems. While function assessment is presented from a research perspective, its relevance for stakeholders is also stressed here. By using the metaphor of a house, the method could appeal to a wide range of actors. In the case study, we conclude that olive groves on sloping and mountainous land particularly fall short in supplying ecological functions. They do however contribute significantly to the local economy, generate employment and perform an important role in maintaining the cultural landscape and identity, and are thus vital to regional development and to stop outmigration of the population. Policy-makers could use the function assessment tool to design effective cross-compliance rules and relevant agro-environmental measures to reinforce ecological and social functions, and to communicate ideas to other stakeholders. As such, it provides an extension of public debate and can reinforce decision-making by visualizing trends, development alternatives or scenarios. The role of research in this method is to facilitate dialogue between stakeholder groups and to feed the process with relevant indicators.
[ZhouBaotong.Study on basic theoretical concepts of sustainable land use. , 2004, 29(2): 310-314.]
MarsdenT, SonninoR.Rural development and the regional state: Denying multifunctional agriculture in the UK. , 2008, 24: 422-431.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0743016708000259
Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By evaluating UK rural policies on the basis of whether or not they attempt to meet these conditions, this paper shows that an implicit recognition of agriculture's multifunctional character has occurred recently through the shift from a sectoral to a regional and territorial perspective that reintegrates farming into rural development. However, in practice, and especially in England, the UK government has been unable to turn multifunctional activities into a real rural development option. In fact, by continuing to support agri-industrial/retailer interests on the one hand, and post-productivist— environmental and amenity— interests on the other, the State is governing mostly by setting up competitively organized ‘projects’ and schemes that continue to justify the concentration (and limitation) of resources allocated to agriculture. Based upon a critique of policy developments over the past decade, this paper emphasizes the need for more innovative forms of state innovation that provide opportunities for new, creative and more spatially embedded forms of supply and demand management in agri-food. In the conclusions, the paper also argues that more critical research is needed to uncover the existing and potential role of both governments and producer networks in progressing sustainable rural development through agricultural multifunctionality.
The current fast economic growth is accompanied with rapid urban expansion and great loss of agricultural land in the Pearl River Delta. The lack of information and technology hinders planners and local officers to achieve sustainable development. This paper tries to demonstrate the potential of the integration of remote sensing and GIS for monitoring and analysing of land development in the Pearl River Delta. It is found that wasteful use of land resource exists with -榖lind' development patterns. The fast diffusion of urban areas has caused loss of large amount of agricultural land. Based on GIS analysis, some protection measures can be formulated to curb the tendency of swallowing agricultural land for urban development. The area of urban use rapidly increased from 16234.6 ha to 41087.9 ha. in 1988~1993 in the study area, Dongguan. This means that 10.4% of the total land area was converted to urban use just within this short period. Moreover, most of the conversion only occurred in 1990~1993. It is found that the land loss in Dongguan in 1988~1993 mainly took place within a few kilometers nearby urban (town) centres or roads. Actually, 90 percent of the total land loss occurred within an average distance of 1.38 km from roads and 5.63 km from urban (town) centres. The result is not very surprising given that the proximity is a very important factor for land development. It is very clear that the city proper is under a quick expansion of its urban areas in recent years. A transition period with more land loss occurring in a further distance exists because of the diffusion process. It is interesting to see that there is a strong contrast between the diffusion in 1988~1990 and that in 1990~1993. The diffusion of the urban areas was limited in 1988~1990 while the diffusion was astonishingly strong in 1990~1993. It is because a large amount of agricultural land has been encroached for the development of real estate since 1992. However, the diffusion pattern is not identical as there is obvious variation for each town.
[ZengYongnian, HeLili, JinWenping, et al.Quantitative analysis of the urban expansion models in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Metroplan areas. , 2012, 32(5): 544-549.]
ErsbøllAK, ErsbøllBK.Simulation of the K-function in the analysis of spatial clustering for non-randomly distributed locations: Exemplified by Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) infection in Denmark. , 2009, 91(1): 64-71.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167587709001457
The K-function is often used to detect spatial clustering in spatial point processes, e.g. clustering of infected herds. Clustering is identified by testing the observed K-function for complete spatial randomness modelled, e.g. by a homogeneous Poisson process. The approach provides information about spatial clustering as well as the scale of distances of clustering. However, there are several problems related to applying the K-function, e.g. estimation of the size of the study area and the assumption about modelling spatial random distribution of the events by, e.g. a homogeneous Poisson process. The objective of the present study was to develop a null hypothesis version of the K-function that overcomes the assumption about a specific underlying spatial distribution characterising complete spatial randomness. Furthermore, the objective was to develop an approach that does not include the estimation of the size of the study area. The paper presents a simulation procedure to derive the null hypothesis version of the K-function. The null hypothesis version of the K-function is simulated by random sampling of N+ locations from the distribution of N observed locations (infected (N+) and non-infected (N-N+)). The differences between the empirical and the estimated null-hypothesis version of the K-function are plotted together with the 95% simulation envelopes versus the distance, h. In this way we test if the spatial distribution of the infected herds differs from the spatial distribution of the herd locations in general. The approach also overcomes edge effects and problems with complex shapes of the study region. An application to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in Denmark is described.