This study used the Mann-Kendall test, the smoothing T-test, and empirical orthogonal function analysis method to analyze the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of permafrost thickness in Heilongjiang province, with daily permafrost monitoring and temperature data obtained from 32 meteorological stations in the past 50 years (1961-2012). The results were as follows. (1) In the past 50 years, the permafrost thickness in Heilongjiang province decreased by 12.86 cm, at a rate of -0.53 cm/yr. An abrupt change occurred in 2001. (2) The spatial distribution of the permafrost thickness showed a tendency of being thick in the northern part and thin in the southern part, whereas in the central region the permafrost thickness was lower than that in other areas at the same latitude. The spatial variation showed that the permafrost thickness decreased faster in the southern part and at a slower rate in the northern part, while the central, western, and southeastern regions showed the opposite characteristics. The Yichun, Tieli, and Mohe observation points were more susceptible to permafrost change. (3) Temperature was the main factor influencing the permafrost thickness variations in the study area, and the correlation coefficient was -0.611. This main contribution of this article is that it reveals the spatial variation characteristics of permafrost thickness in Heilongjiang, and thus provides a suitable background for related research and various government programs.
[GaoFeng, LiuJun, NiChangjian, et al.Characteristics of frozen soil active layer in alpine region. , 2014, 30(4): 84-90.]
BrownJ, Hinkel KM, Nelson FE.The circumpolar active layer monitoring (calm) program: Research designs and initial results. , 2000, 24(3): 166-258.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10889370009377698
Nelson FE, Shiklomanov NI, Hinkel KM, et al.The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) Workshop and THE CALM II Program. , 2004, 28(4): 253-266.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/789610205
In today-榮 world, new technology revolution characterizing as information technology is in the ascendant. It is a strategic demand that we should energetically develop software industry and base the national economy and society on information technology so as to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects and narrow the digital gap. In recent years, the Chinese government has vigorously carried out a developing program for high-tech industry, therefore a new lot of software bases and special software incubators have been constructed which in turn push forward a rapid development of software industry.
Jorgenson MT, Racine CH, Walters JC, et al.Permafrost degradation and ecological changes associated with a warming climate in central Alaska. , 2001, 48(4): 551-579.http://link.springer.com/10.1023/A:1005667424292
Studies from 1994–1998 on the TananaFlats in central Alaska reveal that permafrostdegradation is widespread and rapid, causing largeshifts in ecosystems from birch forests to fens andbogs. Fine-grained soils under the birch forest areice-rich and thaw settlement typically is 1–2.5 mafter the permafrost thaws. The collapsed areas arerapidly colonized by aquatic herbaceous plants,leading to the development of a thick, floatingorganic mat. Based on field sampling of soils,permafrost and vegetation, and the construction of aGIS database, we estimate that 17% of the study area(263,964 ha) is unfrozen with no previous permafrost,48% has stable permafrost, 31% is partiallydegraded, and 4% has totally degraded. For thatportion that currently has, or recently had,permafrost (83% of area), 6542% has been affected bythermokarst development. Based on airphoto analysis,birch forests have decreased 35% and fens haveincreased 29% from 1949 to 1995. Overall, the areawith totally degraded permafrost (collapse-scar fensand bogs) has increased from 39 to 47% in 46 y. Based on rates of change from airphoto analysis andradiocarbon dating, we estimate 83% of thedegradation occurred before 1949. Evidence indicatesthis permafrost degradation began in the mid-1700s andis associated with periods of relatively warm climateduring the mid-late 1700s and 1900s. If currentconditions persist, the remaining lowland birchforests will be eliminated by the end of the nextcentury.
CamillP.Permafrost thaw accelerates in boreal peatlands during late-20th century climate warming. , 2005, 68(1): 135-152.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10584-005-4785-y
Permafrost covers 25% of the land surface in the northern hemisphere, where mean annual ground temperature is less than 0°C. A 1.4–5.8 °C warming by 2100 will likely change the sign of mean annual air and ground temperatures over much of the zones of sporadic and discontinuous permafrost in the northern hemisphere, causing widespread permafrost thaw. In this study, I examined rates of discontinuous permafrost thaw in the boreal peatlands of northern Manitoba, Canada, using a combination of tree-ring analyses to document thaw rates from 1941–1991 and direct measurements of permanent benchmarks established in 1995 and resurveyed in 2002. I used instrumented records of mean annual and seasonal air temperatures, mean winter snow depth, and duration of continuous snow pack from climate stations across northern Manitoba to analyze temporal and spatial trends in these variables and their potential impacts on thaw. Permafrost thaw in central Canadian peatlands has accelerated significantly since 1950, concurrent with a significant, late-20th-century average climate warming of +1.32 °C in this region. There were strong seasonal differences in warming in northern Manitoba, with highest rates of warming during winter (+1.39 °C to +1.66 °C) and spring (+0.56 °C to +0.78 °C) at southern climate stations where permafrost thaw was most rapid. Projecting current warming trends to year 2100, I show that trends for north-central Canada are in good agreement with general circulation models, which suggest a 4–8 °C warming at high latitudes. This magnitude of warming will begin to eliminate most of the present range of sporadic and discontinuous permafrost in central Canada by 2100.
Frauenfeld OW, ZhangT, Barry RG, et al.Interdecadal changes in seasonal freeze and thaw depths in Russia. , 2004, 109(D5): 413-421.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2003JD004245/pdf
 Seasonal freezing and thawing processes in cold regions play a major role in ecosystem diversity, productivity, and the Arctic hydrological system. Long-term changes in seasonal freeze and thaw depths are also important indicators of climate change. Only sparse historical measurements of seasonal freeze and thaw depths are available for permafrost and seasonally frozen ground regions. Using mean monthly soil temperature data for 19300900091990 for 242 stations located throughout Russia, we employed a linear interpolation method to determine the depth of the 000°C isotherm based on soil temperature data measured between 0.2 m and 3.2 m depth. The relationship between available observed annual maximum freeze and thaw depths and our interpolated values indicates a perfect correlation. A comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in these new interpolated data for Russia indicates that in permafrost regions, active layer depths have been steadily increasing. In the period 19560900091990 the active layer exhibited a statistically significant deepening by approximately 20 cm. The changes in the seasonally frozen ground areas are even greater: The depth of the freezing layer decreased 34 cm between 1956 and 1990. Potential forcings of the observed changes include air temperature, freezing and thawing index, and snow depth. Correlation and multiple regression reveal that active layer depth is most strongly related to snow depth. Air temperature, both mean annual and thawing index, is also significantly related to changes in the active layer. Freeze depth is influenced most strongly by the freezing index and mean annual air temperature, although snow depth is also a significant contributor. Air temperature and snow depth have been changing less in the seasonally frozen ground regions of Russia compared to permafrost regions, although observed changes in freeze depth are greater than changes in active layer depth for 19300900091990. This indicates that the seasonally frozen ground regions of the Russian high latitudes are more susceptible to climate change than the Russian permafrost. However, as temperatures have been rising, especially in the high-latitude continental regions, both permafrost and seasonally frozen ground regions are being greatly impacted. These changes can potentially result in increased river runoff and changes in discharge throughout the Russian Arctic drainage basin, as well as changes in high-latitude ecosystems.
SharkhuuN.Recent changes in the permafrost of Mongolia. In: Phillips M, Springman S M, Arenson L U. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Permafrost. , 2003: 1029-1034.http://www.mendeley.com/research/permafrost-proceedings-8th-international-conference-permafrost/
[WangChunhe, ZhangBaolin, LiuFutao.A preliminary analysis on the regularity of permafrost degradation its advantages and disadvantages in the Greater and Lesser Xing'an Mountains. , 1996, 18(Sl): 174-179.]
基于黑龙江省1960~2010年的土地利用变化,采用自然正交分解(EOF)、气候倾向率及Observation Minus Reanalysis(OMR)等方法,分析了土地利用变化对黑龙江省气温的影响。研究发现:(1)1960~2010年黑龙江省耕地、建设用地、水域面积依次增加,沼泽、草地和林地依次减少。土地利用变化区域性较明显,沼泽转变为耕地集中在东部,草地转为耕地集中分布在黑龙江省西部,沼泽转为林地和林地转为耕地集中在北部,建设用地增加主要集中在南部;(2)黑龙江省1960~2010年土地利用变化对年平均气温及各个季节平均气温均产生升高效应,但并不显著,对年气温的影响趋势为0.053℃/10a,贡献率为12.1%;(3)1960~2010年土地利用变化产生气温空间变化异质性,但没有改变气温纬向性空间分布特征;(4)1960~2010年,林地和沼泽的气温影响效应为升温,草地和耕地为降温,但各个季节有所差异,夏季和秋季表现出降温效应,建设用地全年及各个季节均表现出升温效应,冬季最强;林地转耕地、草地转耕地均以升温效应为主,沼泽转耕地为降温效应。
[ZhangLijuan, YuYang, SuLianling, et al.Effects of land use change on air temperature of Heilongjiang province in 1960-2010. , 2017, 37(6): 952-959.]