地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (6): 1127-1141.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201806006

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

生态移民福祉影响因素研究——基于陕西省蓝田县农村抽样调研

李鑫远(), 雷敏(), 郗家祺, 曹晓丽, 赵志卿   

  1. 西北大学城市与环境学院,西安 710127
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-23 修回日期:2018-03-06 出版日期:2018-06-10 发布日期:2018-06-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李鑫远(1991- ),男,甘肃平凉人,硕士,主要从事区域可持续发展与福祉地理学研究。E-mail:bfzdm0316@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    科技部美丽乡村建设技术研究与示范项目(2015BAL01B00)

A study on the influencing factors of rural residents' well-being under the ecological migration: Based on the sampling survey of rural areas in Lantian county of Shaanxi province

Xinyuan LI(), Min LEI(), Jiaqi XI, Xiaoli CAO, Zhiqing ZHAO   

  1. School of Urban and Environment, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
  • Received:2017-12-23 Revised:2018-03-06 Online:2018-06-10 Published:2018-06-10
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

生态移民下农民要面临新的经济、社会和心理风险,亟需关注并增进其福祉水平,以尽快融入迁入地、嵌入新生活。从微观农户视角出发,基于Amartya Sen的能力理论,结合文献研究和参与式农村评估的成果,通过构建生态移民福祉多维指标体系分析生态移民作用下农民福祉的影响因素。结果表明:生态移民搬迁下农民受到家庭福祉、外部福祉和心理福祉共同作用,但影响程度差异显著;移民面临福祉维护向福祉提升的转变,外部福祉发挥主导作用,家庭福祉和心理福祉相互作用、协调推进;生活水平、健康、安全、社会联系、环境文化、信息交流、时间利用、社会适应、公平权利、生活实现这10大生活功能项结成复杂的耦合关系,通过不同程度直接或间接地影响农民福祉整体水平,其中社会联系作用最为显著,公平权利方面的诉求最为激烈,时间利用间接作用较为突出。据此,研究提出生态移民实施的具体建议,要兼顾移民家庭、外部和心理福祉水平,重视移民福祉与政策实施的联系,通过惠农政策的持续供给、重点保障和全方位扶持,保证移民享受到持久、稳定、更高水平的福祉。

关键词: 福祉, 生态移民搬迁, 农民, 能力方法, 蓝田

Abstract:

The well-being is a complete expression on living actuality and satisfaction degree, referring to several factors such as wealth, education, health, security, facility, livelihood, and happiness. The rural residents under eco-migration facing new risks of economy, society and mentality should pay attention to improving well-being level and help for merging into immigrant areas and new life. Based on a microcosmic view of rural residents and supported by Amartya Sen Capacity Theory, this paper examines the influencing factors and mechanism of action on well-being of rural residents under eco-migration from farmers' demand by connecting literature researches and results of participatory rural appraisal as well as by establishing multidimensional index systems of the well-being of rural residents under eco-migration. The research shows that the rural residents' well-being under eco-migration presents a general pattern of "one body with two wings, ten points interact", because the immigrants face the combined impacts of family well-being, external well-being and psychological well-being, but the impact degrees are significantly different. The "main body" is that the external well-being plays a leading role while immigrants face well-being maintenance transfers to well-being improvement, and the "two wings" are the coactions of family well-being and psychological well-being with harmonious propulsion. The complicated coupling relationship of 10 vital functions (living standard, health, security, social bond, environmental culture, communication for information, time utilization, social adaptation, equal rights and life realization) influences directly or indirectly the integral level of rural residents' well-being to different degrees and shows a pattern of obvious focal point and echelon improvement. Of 10 vital functions, the effect of social bond is the most remarkable, the appeal for equal rights is the most intense, and indirect effect of time utilization is relatively obvious. Thus, the research suggests that the implementation of eco-migration should consider the family well-being, external well-being and psychological well-being of immigrants, focus on the relations of immigrant well-being and policy implementation, and ensure the rural residents under eco-migration adaptation to new environment in immigrant areas and enjoy a lasting, steady and high-level well-being by means of sustainable supply, important guarantee and omni-directional support of benefit farming policy.

Key words: well-being, ecological migration, rural residents, capacity approach, Lantian