Regional development is a process in which industries develop, transform and upgrade constantly. Evolutionary economic geography understands the spatial evolution of firm, industry, cluster, network, city and region through the lens of firm entry, growth and exit, and argues that regional industrial evolution is path dependent and determined by inter-industrial technological relatedness. However, path dependence theory overemphasizes the endogenous factors in regional industrial development and ignores the critical role of external linkages and institutional factors, which would bring path creation for regional development. In China, there has been dramatic transformation in regional industrial structure since the economic reform. Empirical studies indicate that technological relatedness has indeed significantly determined regional industrial evolution, suggesting a path dependent process. Meanwhile, marketization, globalization and regional decentralization provide great opportunities to create new industries for regional development. In particular, external linkage, institutional factors and purposeful and strategic actions of local actors would stimulate path creation.
Following last decade0964s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-0102-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and how the evolutionary perspective relates to that of New Economic Geography. Second, we discuss research on agglomeration externalities in Regional Science, and how Evolutionary Economic Geography contributed to this literature with the concepts of cognitive proximity and related variety. Third, we go into the role of institutions in Evolutionary Economic Geography, and we relate this to the way Institutional Economic Geography tends to view institutions. From this discussion, a number of new research challenges are derived.
Thus far, most of the work towards the construction of an evolutionary economicgeography has drawn upon a particular version of evolutionary economics, namelythe Nelson-Winter framework, which blends Darwinian concepts and metaphors(especially variety, selection, novelty and inheritance) and elements of a behaviouraltheory of the firm. Much less attention has been directed to an alternative conceptionbased on complexity theory, yet in recent years complexity theory has increasingly beenconcerned with the general attributes of evolutionary natural and social systems. In thisarticle we explore the idea of the economic landscape as a complex adaptive system.We identify several key notions of what is being called the new ‘complexity economics’,and examine whether and in what ways these can be used to help inform anevolutionary perspective for understanding the uneven development and adaptivetransformation of the economic landscape.
Boschma RA, FrenkenK.Applications of evolutionary economic geography. , 2006.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/4900032_Applications_of_Evolutionary_Economic_Geography
This paper is written as the first chapter of an edited volume on evolutionary economics and economic geography (Frenken, K., editor, Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, expected publication date February 2007). The paper reviews empirical applications of evolutionary economics in the field of economic geography. The review is divided in four parts: the micro-level of the firm, the meso-levels of industry and network, and the macro-level of spatial system. Some remarks on evolutionary policy in regional development are added as well as a short discussion of empirical problems that remain.
Boschma RA, FrenkenK.Evolutionary economics and industry location. , 2003, 23(2): 183-200.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/46637985_Evolutionary_economics_and_industry_location
This paper aims to provide the outlines of an evolutionary economic geography of industry location. We discuss two evolutionary explanations of industry location, that is, one that concentrates on spin-offs, and one that focuses attention on knowledge and agglomeration economies. We claim that both mechanisms (spin-offs and agglomeration economies), through which organisational routines diffuse, though complementary in some respects, should be carefully disentangled. We further argue that evolutionary approaches have some similarities with the new economic geography in general, yet differ fundamentally in their models and explanations of spatial concentration of industry. As such, an evolutionary approach promises to provide a truly new programme in economic geography for what concerns industry location.
MarshallA.. London: Royal Economic Society (Great Britain), 1920.
StuartT, SorensonO.The geography of opportunity: Spatial heterogeneity in founding rates and the performance of biotechnology firms. , 2003, 32(2): 229-253.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048733302000987
WentingR, FrenkenK.Firm entry and institutional lock-in: An organizational ecology analysis of the global fashion design industry. , 2011, 20(4): 1031-1048.https://academic.oup.com/icc/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/icc/dtr032
BuenstorfG, KlepperS.Heritage and agglomeration: The Akron tyre cluster revisited. , 2009, 119(537): 705-733.http://blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ecoj.2009.119.issue-537
Abstract We use new data on the location and background of entrants into the US tyre industry to analyse why the industry became so regionally concentrated around Akron, Ohio, a small city with no compelling advantages for tyre production. We analyse where the Ohio entrants originated and conduct various analyses of how proximity to other tyre firms affected the longevity of tyre producers. We also examine how the heritage of the Ohio entrants influenced their origin and longevity. Our findings suggest that the Akron tyre cluster grew primarily through a process of organisational reproduction and heredity rather than through agglomeration economies.
MenzelM, FornahlD.Cluster life cycles: Dimensions and rationales of cluster evolution. , 2009, 19(1): 205-238.http://icc.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/1/205
We present a model that explains how a cluster moves through a life cycle and why this movement differs from the industry life cycle. The model is based on three key processes: the changing heterogeneity in the cluster describes the movement of the cluster through the life cycle; the geographical absorptive capacity enables clustered companies to take advantage of a larger diversity of knowledge and the stronger convergence of clustered companies compared to non-clustered companies results in a reduction of heterogeneity. We apply these processes to four stages of the cluster life cycle: emergence, growth, sustainment and decline.
SuireR, VicenteJ.Why do some places succeed when others decline? A social interaction model of cluster viability. , 2009, 9(3): 381-404.http://joeg.oxfordjournals.org/content/9/3/381
One of the most convincing explanations papers generally provide concerning clusters in knowledge-based economies refers to the geographically bounded dimension of knowledge spillovers. Here, we shall underline that location decision externalities precede local knowledge spillovers in the explanation of cluster aggregate efficiency, which thus requires us to focus on the sequential process of location and the nature of interdependences in location decision-making. To that end, we mean to associate cluster emergence with the formation of locational norms, and to study the critical parameters of their stability. These parameters relate to the type of decision externalities among more or less cognitively distant firms, which influences the weight and the resulting ambivalent role of knowledge spillovers at the aggregate level of clusters. We suggest two theoretical propositions which we test within a simple and general norm location dynamics modeling framework. We then proceed to discuss the results so obtained by comparing them with an emerging related literature based on the life cycle and viability of clusters.
Boschma RA, WentingR.The spatial evolution of the British automobile industry: Does location matter?. , 2007, 16(2): 213-238.https://academic.oup.com/icc/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/icc/dtm004
This article aims to describe and explain the spatial evolution of the automobile sector in Great Britain from an evolutionary perspective. This analysis is based on a unique database of all entries and exits in this sector during the period 1895–1968, collected by the authors. Cox regressions show that spinoff dynamics, agglomeration economies and time of entry have had a significant effect on the survival rate of automobile firms during the period 1895–1968. Copyright 2007 , Oxford University Press.
BoschmaR.Proximity and innovation: A critical assessment. , 2005, 39(1): 61-74.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0034340052000320887
Boschma R. A. (2005) Proximity and innovation: a critical assessment, Regional Studies39, 61-74. A key issue in economic geography is to determine the impact of geographical proximity on interactive learning and innovation. We argue that the importance of geographical proximity cannot be assessed in isolation, but should always be examined in relation to other dimensions of proximity that may provide alternative solutions to the problem of coordination. We claim that geographical proximity per se is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for learning to take place. Nevertheless, it facilitates interactive learning, most likely by strengthening the other dimensions of proximity. However, proximity may also have negative impacts on innovation due to the problem of lock-in. Accordingly, not only too little, but also too much proximity may be detrimental to interactive learning and innovation. This may be the case for all five dimensions of proximity discussed in the paper, i.e. cognitive, organizational, social, institutional and geographical proximity. Finally, the paper presents a number of mechanisms that offer, by their own, or in combination, solutions to the problems of coordination and lock-in. That is, they enhance effective coordination and control (solving the problem of too little proximity), while they prevent actors to become locked-in through ensuring openness and flexibility (solving the problem of too much proximity). Boschma R. A. (2005) La proximité et l'innovation: une évaluation, Regional Studies39, 61-74. Dans la géographie économique, la détermination de l'impact de la proximité géographique sur l'apprentissage interactif et l'innovation est capitale. Cet article affirme que l'on ne peut évaluer l'importance de la proximité géographique isolément. Plut00t, on devrait l'examiner toujours par rapport à d'autres dimensions de la proximité qui pourraient fournir des réponses alternatives à la question de la coordination. On affirme que la proximité géographique en soi ne constitue une condition ni préalable, ni suffisante, pour que l'apprentissage ait lieu. Néanmoins, elle facilite l'apprentissage interactif en renforcant, très vraisemblablement, les autres dimensions de la proximité. Cependant, il se peut que la proximité ait des retombées négatives sur l'innovation, à cause du problème de l'enfermement. Par la suite, non seulement trop peu de proximité, mais aussi trop de proximité pourraient s'avérer nuisibles à l'apprentissage interactif et à l'innovation. Cela vaudrait pour toutes les cinq dimensions de la proximité présentées dans cet article, à savoir la proximité cognitive, organisationnelle, sociale, institutionnelle et géographique. Pour finir, on présente quelques mécanismes qui fournissent, indépendamment ou conjointement, des réponses aux problèmes de la coordination et de l'enfermement. C'est-à-dire, ils font valoir la coordination et le contr00le effectifs (ce qui répond à la possibilité qu'il y ait trop peu de proximité), tout en empêchant l'enfermement des agents en assurant l'ouverture et la flexibilité (ce qui répond à la possibilité qu'il y ait trop de proximité). Boschma R. A. (2005) N01he und Innovation: eine kritische Beurteilung, Regional Studies39, 61-74. Vom Standpunkt der Wirtschaftsgeographie gesehen, spielt die Bestimmung der Auswirkung geographischer N01he auf interaktives Lernen und Innovation eine Schlüsselrolle. Der Autor vertritt die Auffassung, da08 die Bedeutung der geographischen N01he nicht isoliert werden kann, sondern immer in Bezug auf andere Dimensionen der N01he untersucht werden sollte, die alternative L02sungen für das Problem der Koordination liefern k02nnten. Der Autor behauptet, da08 geographische N01he an sich weder eine notwendige noch eine ausreichende Bedingung dafür ist, da08 Erwerb von Kenntnissen stattfindet. Nichtsdestoweniger erleichtert es interaktives Lernen, h02chstwahrscheinlich dank Festigung der anderen Dimensionen der N01he. Das Problem des Sich-gebunden-fühlens kann sich jedoch auch negativ auf Innovation auswirken. Dementsprechend kann sich nicht nur zu wenig N01he, sondern auch zu viel N01he nachteilig auf interaktives Lernen und Innovation auswirken. Dies k02nnte auf alle fünf in diesem Aufsatz besprochenen Dimensionen der N01he zutreffen, d.h. auf kognitive, organisatorische, gesellschaftliche, institutionelle und geographische N01he. Abschlie08end werden verschiedene Mechanismen vorgestellt, die selbst oder in Verbindung mit anderen, L02sungen für die Probleme der Koordination und Bindungen anbieten. Das hei08t, sie best01rken effektive Koordination und Steuerung (und l02sen damit das Problem zu geringer N01he), und verhindern zugleich, da08 Spieler in Bindungen geraten, indem sie Offenheit und Flexibilit01t garantieren (das Problem überm0108iger N01he l02sen). Boschma R. A. (2005) Proximidad e innovación: un examen crítico, Regional Studies39, 61-74. Uno de los asuntos clave dentro de lo que es la geografía económica es determinar el impacto que la proximidad geográfica tiene en el aprendizaje interactivo y en la innovación. Argumentamos que la importancia de la proximidad geográfica es un hecho que no se puede examinar de forma aislada, si no que siempre debería ser analizado en relación a otras dimensiones de proximidad que pueden ofrecer soluciones alternativas al problema de co-operación. Sostenemos que la proximidad geográfica per se no es una condición ni necesaria ni suficiente para que el aprendizaje tenga lugar. No obstante, facilita el aprendizaje interactivo, con mayor probabilidad mediante el reforzamiento de las otras dimensiones de proximidad. Sin embargo, la proximidad también puede tener impactos negativos en la innovación, debido al problema de lock-in. Así pues, no sólo una escasa proximidad, sino también una proximidad excesiva puede perjudicar el aprendizaje interactivo y la innovación. Esto puede ser el caso en lo que respecta a las cinco dimensiones de proximidad que se discuten en este artículo, esto es, proximidad cognitiva, organizacional, social, institucional y geográfica. Por último, exponemos una serie de mecanismos que ofrecen, o bien por sí solos o en combinación, soluciones a los problemas de coordinación y de lock-in. Esto es, mejoran la coordinación efectiva y el control (solucionando así el problema de escasa proximidad), mientras que previenen que los actores se vuelvan locked-in mediante la garantización de claridad y flexibilidad (solucionando así el problema de proximidad excesiva).
TorreA.On the role played by temporary geographical proximity in knowledge transmission. , 2008, 42(6): 869-889.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00343400801922814
Torre A. On the role played by temporary geographical proximity in knowledge transmission, Regional Studies. This paper defends the thesis that geographical proximity remains essential for knowledge transfer, but not often implies the co-location of innovation and research activities. The need for geographical proximity now mostly affects certain stages of the process of production, research or development. Short- or medium-term visits are often sufficient for the partners to exchange the information needed for cooperation. The mobility of individuals makes it possible to implement this mechanism. Temporary geographical proximity implies a strong relation to space, but one that differs in nature from that described by the traditional approaches. Torre A. R00le de la proximité géographique temporaire dans la transmission de la connaissance, Regional Studies. Dans cet article, nous défendons la thèse selon laquelle la proximité géographique demeure essentielle au transfert des connaissances mais qu'elle n'implique pas souvent la co-localisation d'activités d'innovation et de recherche. La nécessité de la proximité géographique affecte surtout, aujourd'hui, certaines étapes des processus de production, de recherche et de développement. Les visites à court ou moyen terme suffisent souvent aux partenaires pour échanger des informations nécessaires à leur coopération. La mobilité des individus permet de mettre en 04uvre ce mécanisme. La proximité géographique temporaire induit une forte relation à l'espace mais une relation qui diffère en nature de celle qui est décrite par les approches classiques. Proximité géographique69Proximité organisée69Ubiquité69Agrégats Torre A. Die Rolle der vorübergehenden geografischen N01he zur Wissensübertragung, Regional Studies. In diesem Artikel verteidigen wir die These, dass eine geografische N01he zur Wissensübertragung nach wie vor unverzichtbar ist, aber oft keinen gemeinsamen Standort der Innovations- und Forschungsarbeit voraussetzt. Die Notwendigkeit einer geografischen N01he betrifft heute meistens bestimmte Phasen im Produktions-, Forschungs- oder Entwicklungsprozess. Oft sind kurze oder mittellange Besuche für die Partner ausreichend, um die für eine Zusammenarbeit ben02tigten Informationen auszutauschen. Die Mobilit01t der einzelnen Personen macht eine Umsetzung dieses Mechanismus m02glich. Eine vorübergehende geografische N01he setzt eine enge Verbindung zum Raum voraus, deren Beschaffenheit jedoch von den Beschreibungen der traditionellen Ans01tze abweicht. Geografische N01he69Organisierte N01he69Ubiquit01t69Cluster Torre A. El papel desempe09ado por la proximidad geográfica temporal en la transmisión de conocimiento, Regional Studies. En este artículo defendemos la tesis de que la proximidad geográfica sigue siendo un factor fundamental para la transferencia de conocimientos aunque esto no suele implicar la ubicación conjunta de las actividades de innovación y las de investigación. La necesidad de proximidad geográfica ahora afecta sobre todo a ciertas fases del proceso de producción, investigación y desarrollo. Las visitas a corto o medio plazo son con frecuencia suficientes para que los socios intercambien la información que necesitan para cooperar. La movilidad de los individuos facilita la aplicación de este mecanismo. La proximidad geográfica temporal entra09a una estrecha relación en el espacio pero que difiere en naturaleza de la que se describe en enfoques tradicionales. Proximidad geográfica69Proximidad organizada69Ubicuidad69Agrupaciones
StorperM.The limits to globalization: Technology districts and international trade. , 1992, 68(1): 60-93.https://www.jstor.org/stable/144041?origin=crossref
The proportion of traded goods in world output has been rising steadily over the past several decades. When we look at specific products exported by the advanced industrial nations, increasing export specialization is evident. Such specialization cannot be explained by conventional notions of comparative advantage, nor entirely by the new trade theory based on economies of scale. Rather, a significant proportion must be due to technological or 090008absolute090009 advantages on the part of the specialized exporter, and a significant dimension of technological advantage is product-based and renewed through learning, giving rise to dynamic economies of variety as a source of export specialization. Industries characterized by such product-based learning and absolute advantage tend to have important developmental effects on their host economies because they earn quasi-rents. Such industries also tend to be organized into production networks combining the advantages of specialization and flexibility, which are key to technological learning. These export-oriented absolute advantage industries tend to be found in one or a few subnational regions of their host countries. In this way, the global economy may be thought of as consisting, in important part, of a series of 090008technology districts.090009 Unlocking the organizational secrets of technological learning in these places is now a key task for understanding the dynamics both of these localities and of the global economy as a whole. I give examples from studies in France, Italy, and the U.S.
MackinnonD, CumbersA, PikeA, et al.Evolution in economic geography: Institutions, political economy, and adaptation. , 2009, 85(2): 129-150.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ecge.2009.85.issue-2
Economic geography has, over the past decade or so, drawn upon ideas from evolutionary economics in trying to understand processes of regional growth and change. Recently, some researchers have sought to delimit and develop an "evolutionary economic geography" (EEG), aiming to create a more systematic theoretical framework for research. This article provides a sympathetic critique and elaboration of this emergent EEG but takes issue with some aspects of its characterization in recent programmatic statements. While acknowledging that EEG is an evolving and pluralist project, we are concerned that the reliance on certain theoretical frameworks that are imported from evolutionary economics and complexity science threatens to isolate it from other approaches in economic geography, limiting the opportunities for cross-fertilization. In response, the article seeks to develop a social and pluralist conception of institutions and social agency in EEG, drawing upon the writings of leading institutional economists, and to link evolutionary concepts to political economy approaches, arguing that the evolution of the economic landscape must be related to processes of capital accumulation and uneven development. As such, we favor the use of evolutionary and institutional concepts within a geographical political economy approach, rather than the construction of some kind of theoretically separate EEG evolution in economic geography, not an evolutionary economic geography.
BoschmaR, FrenkenK.Some notes on institutions in evolutionary economic geography. , 2009, 85(2): 151-158.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ecge.2009.85.issue-2
abstract Within the evolutionary economic geography framework, the role of institutions deserves more explicit attention. We argue that territorial institutions are to be viewed as orthogonal to organizational routines since each territory is characterized by a variety of routines and a single firm can apply its routines in different territorial contexts. It is therefore meaningful to distinguish between institutional economic geography and evolutionary economic geography as their explanans is different. Yet the two approaches can be combined in a dynamic framework in which institutions coevolve with organizational routines, particularly in emerging industries. Furthermore, integrating the evolutionary and institutional approach allows one to analyze the spatial diffusion of organizational routines that mediate conflicts among social groups, in particular, those between employers and employees. An evolutionary economic geography advocates an empirical research program, both qualitative and quantitative, that can address the relative importance of organizational routines and territorial institutions for regional development.
MalmbergA, MaskellP.An evolutionary approach to localized learning and spatial clustering. , 2010: 391-405.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/287946765_An_evolutionary_approach_to_localized_learning_and_spatial_clustering
This wide-ranging Handbook is the first major compilation of the theoretical and empirical research that is forging the new and exciting paradigm of evolutionary economic geography.
Nelson RR.The co-evolution of technology, industrial structure, and supporting institutions. , 1994, 3(1): 47-63.https://academic.oup.com/icc/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/icc/3.1.47
There is a large intellectual discrepancy between most formal growth models described by economists and descriptions of growth in economic history. This paper draws on an evolutionary theory of economic growth that brings together appreciative theorizing regarding growth and formal theorizing. It aims to piece together a relatively coherent appreciative theoretical account of economic development at a sectoral level by laying out a story of the growth, and development, of a manufacturing sector, from birth to maturity, and perhaps until death, that seems to fit many cases and which can serve as a target for formalization. The paper first describes and tries to link two broad bodies of appreciative evolutionary theoretic writing. The first proposes that a new technology develops along a relatively standard track from the time it is born, to its maturity, and that firm and industry structure ‘coevolve’ with the technology. The other is concerned with the development of institutions in response to changing economic conditions, incentives, and pressures. The paper then considers ‘punctuated equilibrium’ before concluding with a consideration of two economic developmental implications that appear to flow from the analysis. One concerns the pattern of change of productivity, of capital intensity, and relative variables associated with economic growth, as a technology and industry structure develop. The other is concerned with implicitly cross-country comparisons, and is focused on how ‘comparative advantage’ develops in a new industry.
[WangMingfeng, XiHouxue.The evolutionary paths of new emerging industry in cities: A case study of the Internet of things industry in the Yangtze River Delta region. , 2015, 34(9): 1697-1707.]
Murmann JP.Knowledge and Competitive Advantage: The Coevolution of Firms, Technology, and National Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Nelson RR.Co-evolution of industry structure, technology and supporting institutions, and the making of comparative advantage. , 1995, 2(2): 171-184.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/758519306
SotarautaM, PulkkinenR.Institutional entrepreneurship for knowledge regions: In search of a fresh set of questions for regional innovation studies. , 2011, 29(1): 96-112.http://epc.sagepub.com/lookup/doi/10.1068/c1066r
StrambachS.Knowledge commodification and new patterns of specialisation: Professionals and experts in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS). , 2010.
MaskellP, MalmbergA.Myopia, knowledge development and cluster evolution. , 2007, 7(5): 603-618.https://academic.oup.com/joeg/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jeg/lbm020
This article aims to show how processes of knowledge development and their institutional underpinnings make up the core of evolutionary economic geography. We argue that micro level concepts-notabl ...
BoschmaR, CaponeG.Institutions and diversification: Related versus unrelated diversification in a varieties of capitalism framework. , 2015, 44(10): 1902-1914.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048733315001109
Hidalgo CA, KlingerB, BarabásiA, et al.The product space conditions: The development of nations. , 2007, 317(5837): 482.http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.1144581
Economies grow by upgrading the products they produce and export. The technology, capital, institutions, and skills needed to make newer products are more easily adapted from some products than from others. Here, we study this network of relatedness between products, or "product space," finding that more-sophisticated products are located in a densely connected core whereas less-sophisticated products occupy a less-connected periphery. Empirically, countries move through the product space by developing goods close to those they currently produce. Most countries can reach the core only by traversing empirically infrequent distances, which may help explain why poor countries have trouble developing more competitive exports and fail to converge to the income levels of rich countries.
EssletzbichlerJ.Relatedness, industrial branching and technological cohesion in US metropolitan areas. , 2015, 49(5): 752-766.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00343404.2013.806793
Essletzbichler J. Relatedness, industrial branching and technological cohesion in US metropolitan areas, Regional Studies. Work by evolutionary economic geographers on the role of industry relatedness for regional economic development is extended into a number of methodological and empirical directions. First, relatedness is measured as the intensity of input utput linkages between industries. Second, this measure is employed to examine industry evolution in 360 US metropolitan areas. Third, an employment-weighted measure of metropolitan technological cohesion is developed. The results confirm that technological relatedness is positively related to metropolitan industry portfolio membership and industry entry and negatively related to industry exit. The decomposition of technological cohesion indicates that the selection of related incumbent industries complements industry entry and exit as the main drivers of change in metropolitan technological cohesion.
BoschmaR, MinondoA, NavarroM.The emergence of new industries at the regional level in Spain: A proximity approach based on product relatedness. , 2013, 89(1): 29-51.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ecge.2013.89.issue-1
Kogler DF, Rigby DL, TuckerI.Mapping knowledge space and technological relatedness in US cities. , 2013, 21(9): 1374-1391.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09654313.2012.755832
The accumulation of knowledge is a key driver of technological change and economic growth. Significant attention has been directed to the processes of knowledge production in a spatial context, but little attention has been given to the type of knowledge produced within specific places. The objectives of the present study are to map the US technology/knowledge space, to examine the evolution of that space over the time period 1975 2005, and to investigate the character of knowledge cores within US cities. The knowledge space is based on the proximity of technology classes, utilizing measures derived from co-classification information contained in patent documents. Results show that over time, patents increasingly cluster within technology classes that are located close to one another in technology space. They also reveal considerable heterogeneity in measures of technological specialization across US metropolitan areas. In general, smaller cities tend to display higher levels of knowledge relatedness, often because invention is controlled by a small number of firms with a limited range of technological know-how. Larger cities generate knowledge that is more broadly dispersed across the US knowledge space. Some cities maintain their technological coherence over time, the technological trajectories of others fracture and dissipate, while yet in other cities new technology cores emerge and develop. Higher levels of technological relatedness (specialization) in cities are linked to faster rates of knowledge production and to distinctive trajectories of knowledge evolution.
BoschmaR.Towards an evolutionary perspective on regional resilience. , 2015, 49(5): 733-751.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00343404.2014.959481
Boschma R. Towards an evolutionary perspective on regional resilience, Regional Studies. This paper proposes an evolutionary perspective on regional resilience. It conceptualizes resilience not just as the ability of a region to accommodate shocks, but extends it to the long-term ability of regions to develop new growth paths. A comprehensive view on regional resilience is proposed in which history is key to understand how regions develop new growth paths, and in which industrial, network and institutional dimensions of resilience come together. Resilient regions are capable of overcoming a trade-off between adaptation and adaptability, as embodied in related and unrelated variety, loosely coupled networks and loosely coherent institutional structures.
GarudR, KarnøeP.Path creation as a process of mindful deviation. . London:Psychology Press, 2001: 1-38.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/247120604_PATH_CREATION_AS_A_PROCESS_OF_MINDFUL_DEVIATION
Entrepreneurs are embedded in structures from which they attempt to depart. It is to explicate this notion of agency that the authors offer path creation as a concept that lies in contrast to path dependence. Path dependence celebrates the role of chance historical events in shaping the flow of future events. Such a process perspective takes an outsider's view to the genesis of novelty. In contrast, path creators are boundary spanners who disregard myopic pressures from existing relevance structures by making mindful deviations with objects to create new futures. Time is a critical element in this process. Specifically, path creators negotiate the time required for their initiatives to mature and succeed. In doing so, they harness the dynamic efficiencies implicit in adopting a perspective that views the emergence of novelty ex-vizu of a point in time.
LesterR.Universities, innovation, and the competitiveness of local economies. A Summary Report from the Local Innovation Systems Project: Phase I. , 2005.http://www.mendeley.com/catalog/universities-innovation-competitiveness-local-economies/
Gertler MS.Tacit knowledge and the economic geography of context, or the undefinable tacitness of being (there). , 2003, 3(1): 75-99.https://academic.oup.com/joeg/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jeg/3.1.75
Our principal objective is to formulate some possible links between evolutionary economics and regional policy, a topic that has not (yet) been covered by the literature. To begin with, we outline what we take to be the essential arguments and components of evolutionary economics. More in particular, we focus attention on the economic foundation of technology policy from an evolutionary perspective, and how this deviates from the so-called `equilibrium' rationale. Then, we examine in what way evolutionary insights may be helpful for regional policy matters. Our emphasis is to investigate the degrees of freedom policy makers may have to determine the future development of regions. This is done by distinguishing between two ideal-types of regional development based on evolutionary principles. hen evolutionary mechanisms like `chance' and `increasing returns' are involved in the spatial formation of new economic activities, there are several, quite contradictory, options for policy makers. On the one hand, the importance of `chance events' implies that multiple potential outcomes of location are quite thinkable. This is a principal problem for regional policy because new development paths can not be planned or even foreseen. On the other hand, policy makers may have a considerable role to play. Since space exercises only a minor influence on the location of new economic activities, there is room for policy makers to act and to build-up a favourable local environment. In this respect, `urbanisation economies' may offer advantages of flexibility secured by a diversity of activities that may prevent a process of `negative lock-in'. hen evolutionary mechanisms like `selection' and `path dependency' largely determine the geography of innovation, the options for policy makers to change fundamentally the course of regional development are expected to be rather limited. Regional policy is likely to fail when local strategies deviate considerably from the local context. In such circumstances, policy makers have to account for the fact that adaptation to change is largely constrained by the boundaries of the spatial system laid down in the past. However, this also implies that the potential impact of regional policy may be quite large when the policy objectives are strongly embedded in the surrounding environment.
BoschmaR, FrenkenK, BatheltH, et al.Technological relatedness and regional branching: Beyond territory. , 2012: 64-81.
HausmannR, KlingerB.The structure of the product space and the evolution of comparative advantage. , 2007.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/242563879_The_Structure_of_the_Product_Space_and_the_Evolution_of_Comparative_Advantage
This paper establishes a robust stylized fact: changes in the revealed comparative advantage of nations are governed by the pattern of relatedness of products at the global level. As countries change their export mix, there is a strong tendency to move towards related goods rather than to goods that are farther away. The pattern of relatedness of products is only very partially explained by similarity in broad factor or technological intensities, suggesting that the relevant determinants are much more product-specific. Moreover, the pattern of relatedness of products exhibits very strong heterogeneity: there are parts of this ‘product space’ that are dense while others are sparse. This implies that countries that are specialized in a dense part of the product space have an easier time at changing their revealed comparative advantage than countries that are specialized in more disconnected products.
Hidalgo CA, HausmannR.The building blocks of economic complexity. , 2009, 106(26): 10570-10575.http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0900943106
NeffkeF, HenningM, BoschmaR, et al.The dynamics of agglomeration externalities along the life cycle of industries. , 2011, 45(1): 49-65.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00343401003596307
Neffke F., Henning M., Boschma R., Lundquist K.-J. and Olander L.-O. The dynamics of agglomeration externalities along the life cycle of industries, Regional Studies. This paper investigates the changing roles of agglomeration externalities along the industry life cycle. It is argued that industries have different agglomeration needs in different stages of their life cycles because their mode of competition, innovation intensity, and learning opportunities change over time. For twelve Swedish manufacturing industries, it is determined for each year between 1974 and 2004 whether the industry is in a young, intermediate, or mature stage. Whereas Marshall–Arrow–Romer (MAR) externalities steadily increase with the maturity of industries, the effects of local diversity (Jacobs’ externalities) are positive for young industries, but decline and even become negative for more mature industries. Neffke F., Henning M., Boschma R., Lundquist K.-J. et Olander L.-O. La dynamique des effets externes d'agglomération tout au long du cycle de vie des industries, Regional Studies. Cet article cherche à examiner l’évolution du r00le des effets externes d'agglomération tout au long du cycle de vie des industries. On soutient que les atouts de l'agglomération varient suivant la phase du cycle de vie parce que le mode de compétition, l'intensité de l'innovation, et les possiblités d'apprentissage des industries évoluent dans le temps. On détermine pour douze industries suédoises et pour chaque année de 1974 à 2004 si, oui ou non, une industrie est à un niveau naissant, intermédiaire ou avancé. Tandis que les effets externes Marshall–Arrow–Romer (MAR) augmentent régulièrement au fur et à mesure du développement des industries, les effets de la diversité locale (effets externes Jacobs) s'avèrent positifs pour les industries naissantes mais diminuent, voire s'avèrent négatifs, pour ce qui est des industries plus avancées. Cycle de vie des industries69Agglomération69Effets externes69Evolution69Marshall–Arrow–Romer (MAR)69Jacobs Neffke F., Henning M., Boschma R., Lundquist K.-J. und Olander L.-O. Die Dynamik von Agglomerationsexternalit01ten w01hrend des Lebenszyklus von Branchen, Regional Studies. In diesem Beitrag untersuchen wir die wechselnden Rollen von Agglomerationsexternalit01ten im Laufe des Lebenszyklus von Branchen. Wir stellen die These auf, dass die Branchen in verschiedenen Phasen ihrer Lebenszyklen verschiedene Agglomerationsbedürfnisse aufweisen, da sich die Art ihres Wettbewerbs, die Intensit01t der Innovationen und die Chancen zum Lernen im Laufe der Zeit ver01ndern. Anhand von zw02lf produzierenden Branchen Schwedens wird für jedes Jahr von 1974 bis 2004 festgestellt, ob sich die Branchen jeweils in einem jungen, mittleren oder reifen Stadium befinden. W01hrend die Marshall–Arrow–Romer-(MAR)-Externalit01ten mit zunehmender Reife der Branchen gleichm0108ig zunehmen, fallen die Auswirkungen der lokalen Diversit01t (Jacobs-Externalit01ten) für junge Branchen positiv aus, nehmen dann aber für reifere Branchen ab und werden schlie08lich sogar negativ. Lebenszyklus von Branchen69Agglomeration69Externalit01ten69Evolution69Marshall–Arrow–Romer (MAR)69Jacobs Neffke F., Henning M., Boschma R., Lundquist K.-J. y Olander L.-O. Las dinámicas de los efectos externos de aglomeración en el ciclo vital de las industrias, Regional Studies. En este artículo analizamos las funciones cambiantes de los efectos externos de aglomeración en el ciclo vital de sectores industriales. Argumentamos que las industrias tienen diferentes necesidades de aglomeración en distintas fases de sus ciclos vitales ya que su modo de competición, intensidad de innovación y oportunidades de aprendizaje evolucionan con el tiempo. En doce sectores industriales manufactureros de Suecia se determinó para cada a09o desde 1974 a 2004 si la industria estaba en una fase joven, intermedia o madura. Mientras que los efectos externos Marshall–Arrow–Romer (MAR) aumentan de forma constante con la madurez de las industrias, los efectos de la diversidad local (las externalidades de Jacob) son positivas en las industrias jóvenes, no obstante para las industrias más maduras los efectos entran en declive e incluso se vuelven negativos. Ciclo vital de las industrias69Aglomeración69Efectos externos69Evolución69Marshall–Arrow–Romer (MAR)69Jacobs
QianY.Enterprise reform in China: Agency problems and political control. , 1996, 4(2): 427-447.http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/ecot/4/2
The past reforms of state-owned enterprises in China delegated many effective control rights to managers while maintaining ultimate control rights for the Party and government. The result is that either the agency costs are high because managers lack accountability or the political costs are high because the government causes political interference. Reform of state-owned enterprises in China should aim at reducing both political and agency costs, which can be done through depoliticization, effective corporate governance, and deserialization. In particular, China needs an ownership transformation with a combination of privatization, denationalization, and pluralization; a state assets management system to limit political influence from the government; and corporatization to establish effective corporate governance which may take a variety of forms.
HeC, PanF.Economic transition, dynamic externalities and city-industry growth in China. , 2010, 47(1): 121-144.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0042098009346865
Using data on two-digit manufacturing industries for prefecture-level cities during the period of 200009”05, this study found a significant non-linear relationship between dynamic externalities and city-industry growth. Industrial specialisation and local competition may help city-industry growth, but may harm growth when they exceed a certain level. Diversity helps industry growth, but only when it reaches a certain level. Liberalised, globalised and locally protected industries are more likely to benefit from dynamic externalities. Industries located in cities with greater authorities are also found to grow faster. The empirical findings indicate that economic transition has created conditions to allow a larger role of dynamic externalities in stimulating city-industry growth.
ZhuS, HeC.Geographical dynamics and industrial relocation: Spatial strategies of apparel firms in Ningbo, China. , 2013, 54(3): 342-362.
QiuF, ZhangG, ZhengH.Research on Problem of Industrial Structure in the Yangtse River Delta. , 2005, (4): 77-85.http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-GGYY200504009.htm
The academic circle and the departments of economic administration are paying close attention to the problem of same industrial structure and malignant competition in the Yangtse River Delta. This problem is not serious to that of the main current view. The assimilating extent of industrial structure with the subdivision of industry and the lapse of time is descending, which is the result of advancing complementarily of industry impelled by market power. Malignant competition exists mainly in the field in which the government controls the investment, which comes from the special system of promotion of governmental officials. Therefore, industrial cooperation in this area depends mainly on the market power, and the government must provide policy and surroundings to it. We have to start with the changes of supplying institution for resolving the malignant competition, promoting the regional cooperation, optimizing the spatial layout of industry.
In this paper, we examine one channel through which the trade regime might affect growth in the long run. We model endogenous technological progress that results from profit maximizing investments by far-sighted entrepreneurs. Productivity in the research lab depends upon the "stock of knowledge capital", a variable reflecting the state of scientific, engineering and industrial know-how in the local economy. We argue that local knowledge capital is likely to vary positively with the extent of contact between domestic agents and their counterparts in the international research and business communities, and that the number of such contacts increases with the level of commercial exchange. We derive the implications of this for the relationship between trade and growth.
ZhangL.Chinese central-provincial fiscal relationships, budgetary decline and the impact of the 1994 fiscal reform: An evaluation. , 1999, 157: 115-141.http://www.journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0305741000040224
YoungA.The razor's edge: Distortions and incremental reform in the People's Republic of China. , 2000, 115(4): 1091-1135.https://academic.oup.com/qje/article-lookup/doi/10.1162/003355300555024
In a partially reformed economy, distortions beget distortions. Segments of the economy that are freed from centralized control respond to the rent-seeking opportunities implicit in the remaining distortions of the economy. The battle to capture, and then protect, these rents leads to the creation of new distortions, even as the reform process tries to move forward. In this paper I illustrate this idea with a study of the People's Republic of China. Under the plan, prices were skewed so as to concentrate profits, and hence revenue, in industry. As control over factor allocations was loosened, local governments throughout the economy sought to capture these rents by developing high margin industries. Continued reform, and growing interregional competition between duplicative industries, threatened the profitability of these industrial structures, leading local governments to impose a variety of interregional barriers to trade. Thus, the reform process led to the fragmentation of the domestic market and the distortion of regional production away from patterns of comparative advantage.
GuoQ, HeC.The evolution of production space and regional industrial structrues in China. , 2017, 2(82): 379-396.http://www.mendeley.com/research/evolution-production-space-regional-industrial-structures-china/
A growing literature on evolutionary economic geography concludes that regional industrial evolution is path-dependent and is determined by the pre-existing industries. This study applies the co-occurrence approach to calculate the production relatedness and portrays the production space and then examines the impact of production relatedness on regional industrial evolution. The findings report that production relatedness does underscore the regional structure change in China but shows significant regional differences in the evolution path. The coastal region has strong tendency of path dependence in its industrial evolution, while North West and South West break the path-dependent trajectory and transition into high productive sectors distant from their own production network. The results suggest that national policies can play its crucial role in creating new paths in China's regional development. Institutions matter to allow the significant role of industry relatedness in driving regional industrial evolution.
[LuoQian, HeCanfei.Industrial policy and regional industrial evolution. , 2017]
HeC, YanY, RigbyD.Regional industrial evolution in China. , 2016.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pirs.12246/pdf
Abstract Evolutionary economic geography (EEG) indicates that regional industrial development is path dependent. The empirical studies in EEG however have not paid sufficient attention to the importance of global linkages nor the role of regional institutions in driving industrial dynamics. Based on firm level data of four-digit manufacturing industries during 1998 to 2008 in China, we find that Chinese regions branch into new industries technologically related to the existing industrial portfolio and related industries are less likely to exit. Further analysis reveals that global linkages, economic liberalization and state involvement not only create favourable conditions to allow a larger role of technological relatedness but also generate opportunities for Chinese regions to create new paths of industrial development.
HeC, ZhouY, HuangZ.Fiscal decentralization, political centralization, and land urbanization in China. , 2016, 37(3): 436-457.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02723638.2015.1063242
ABSTRACT This study investigates the driving forces of land urbanization in China. Drawing upon insights from the institutional perspective, this study argues that fiscal decentralization tightens local budget constraints, stimulating local governments to urbanize land to relieve fiscal distress. Political centralization triggers interregional competition among government officials for better economic performance, inspiring local governments to employ land development to mobilize more capital investment for growth. Based on official land-use change data from 2002 to 2008 for prefectural cities, and the application of spatial econometric models, this study presents empirical evidence to support these theoretical arguments. Results imply that fiscal and political incentives derived from land development drive China land urbanization process. This study enriches the urbanization literature by providing an institutional understanding of rapid land urbanization in a transitional economy.
ZhuS, HeC, ZhouY.How to jump further and catch up? Path-breaking in an uneven industry space. , 2017, 17(3): 521-545.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/314168967_How_to_jump_further_and_catch_up_Path-breaking_in_an_uneven_industry_space
Recent studies have argued that regional diversification emerges as a path-dependent process. Developed countries that industrialize do so first from core areas in an uneven industry space and have more opportunities to jump to new related industries and sustain economic growth than do developing countries that jump from peripheral areas. Can developing countries/regions jump further to break these path-dependent trajectories? Based on China鈥檚 export data, we show that regions can make such a jump by investing in extra-regional linkages and internal innovation. The effects of these two sets of variables vary across regions and industries.
ZhuS, PicklesJ, HeC.Global and local governance, and industrial and geographical dynamics: A tale of two clusters. , 2017: 143-167.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-662-53601-8_7
Abstract In the era of globalization, knowledge transfer through global value chains (GVCs) has been considered as a major engine of industrial upgrading for firms in developing economies. Increasing attention has been paid to how global economy has been coordinated and integrated; the actions and motivations of global lead firms are treated as the key causal force in the organization of global contracting systems and in developing country firms’ upgrading and relocation (Gereffi in J Int Econ 48(1):37–70, 1999a; Schmitz and Knorringa in J Dev Stud 37(2):177–205, 2000).
Hodgson GM.Institutional economics into the twenty-first century. , 2009, 14(1): 3-26.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/255611809_Institutional_Economics_into_the_Twenty-First_Century
ABSTRACT This essay considers the nature and evolution of both the old and the new institutional economics and considers the possibility of dialogue or even con- vergence between these schools. It also considers shifts of thinking inside and outside mainstream economics that have altered the conception of the eco- nomic agent, even within mainstream theory. In particular, the stipulation of endogenous preferences, once a hallmark of the old institutionalism, is gain- ing legitimacy within mainstream economics. In this context, the new institu- tional economics is evolving in a direction that makes productive dialogue between the two institutionalist traditions more possible. (J.E.L.: B15, B25, B52)
PikeA, BirchK, CumbersA, et al.A geographical political economy of evolution in Economic Geography. , 2009, 85(2): 175-182.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ecge.2009.85.issue-2
Key themes for evolution in economic geography are identified that clarify and further refine and reinforce our argument for broader conceptions of institutions, social agency, and power and for the situation of the plural and emerging field of evolutionary approaches more fully within geographical political economy. We address the following issues: conceptual and terminological clarity; evolution and institutions within and beyond the firm; agency, bounded determinacy, and power; and research method and design. Our central contention is that geographical political economy provides a coherent and well-structured conceptual and theoretical framework with which to broaden and deepen our understanding, exploration, and practice of evolutionary thinking in economic geography.
Hassink R., Klaerding C. and Marques P. Advancing evolutionary economic geography by engaged pluralism, Regional Studies. Since 2006 economic geographers have been confronted with attempts to constitute a new paradigm of evolutionary economic geography. This paper aims at advancing evolutionary economic geography by reviewing its core critique and proposed solutions, particularly that of integrating the perspective of a geographical political economy. Although the authors sympathize with the identified shortcomings of evolutionary economic geography, the proposed alternative approach, geographical political economy, is regarded as being too narrow and reductionist. By combining evolutionary and relational economic geography in certain respects a plea is made for advancing evolutionary economic geography by engaged pluralism.
Yeung HW, CoeN.Toward a dynamic theory of global production networks. , 2015, 91(1): 29-58.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ecge.2015.91.issue-1
Global production networks (GPN) are organizational platforms through which actors in different regional and national economies compete and cooperate for a greater share of value creation, transformation, and capture through geographically dispersed economic activity. Existing conceptual frameworks on global value chains (GVC) and what we termGPN 1.0tend to under-theorize the origins and dynamics of these organizational platforms and to overemphasize their governance typologies (e.g., modular, relational, and captive modes in GVC theory) or analytical categories (e.g., power and embeddedness in GPN 1.0). Building on this expanding literature, our article aims to contribute toward the reframing of existing GPN-GVC debates and the development of a more dynamic theory of global production networks that can better explain the emergence of different firm-specific activities, strategic network effects, and territorial outcomes in the global economy. It is part of a wider initiative PN 2.0 in short hat seeks to offer novel theoretical insights into why and how the organization and coordination of global production networks varies significantly within and across different industries, sectors, and economies. Taking an actor-centered focus toward theory development, we tackle a significant gap in existing work by systematically conceptualizing thecausal driversof global production networks in terms of their competitive dynamics (optimizing cost-capability ratios, market imperatives, and financial discipline) and risk environments. These capitalist dynamics are theorized as critical independent variables that shape the four main strategies adopted by economic actors in (re)configuring their global production networks and, ultimately, the developmental outcomes in different industries, regions, and countries.
BatheltH, GlücklerJ.Toward a relational economic geography. , 2003, 3(2): 117-144.https://academic.oup.com/joeg/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jeg/3.2.117
In this paper, we argue that a paradigmatic shift is occurring in economic geography toward a relational economic geography. This rests on three propositions. First, from a structural perspective economic actors are situated in contexts of social and institutional relations. Second, in dynamic perspective economic processes are path-dependent, constrained by history. Third, economic processes are contingent in that the agents' strategies and actions are open-ended. Drawing on Storper's holy trinity, we define four ions as the basis for analysis in economic geography: organization, evolution, innovation, and interaction. Therein, we employ a particular spatial perspective of economic processes using a geographical lens. Copyright 2003, Oxford University Press.