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地理研究    2018, Vol. 37 Issue (7): 1349-1363     DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201807008
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中国大都市区高新技术产业分叉过程及动力机制——以武汉生物产业为例
刘志高1,2(),张薇3
1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
3. 浙江省发展规划研究院,杭州 310012
The process and dynamics of high-tech industrial branching in China's metropolitan areas: A case study of biotechnology industry in Wuhan
LIU Zhigao1,2(),ZHANG Wei3
1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3. Zhejiang Development Planning Research Institute, Hangzhou 310012
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摘要 

以演化经济地理学为理论基础,综合经济地理学、产业经济学等相关研究成果,认为中国高新技术产业的形成与发展是本地要素与全球力量、历史条件与现实努力、技术创新与制度变革共同作用的结果,并构建了基于多尺度、多要素的中国高新技术产业分叉动力机制分析框架。同时,以武汉市作为案例区,通过梳理武汉市生物产业形成和演化历程,总结影响其生物产业发展的要素和作用形式。研究发现:生物产业与本地光电子产业之间的技术联系、高校和研究所、以及企业本身仅仅是决定生物产业在武汉市形成的一部分因素,地方政府、跨国公司和留学归国人员等主体也是促成生物产业“生根发芽”的重要主体,它们在武汉生物产业发展的各个阶段,作用程度是不同的。这一点是区别于欧美发达国家以技术为核心的产业分叉研究的,也在一定程度上反映出中国目前的高新技术产业发展仍然停留在“量的扩张”阶段,与欧美发达国家以“质的提升”为主的发展本质有所不同。

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刘志高
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关键词 演化经济地理学产业分叉生物产业转型国家多尺度 
Abstract

The recent development of evolutionary economic geography, particularly of "regional branching", has provided both theoretical perspective and methodological tools for our understanding of the formation of new industries and the branching of existing industrial structures. The existing research on "regional branching" originated in western and developed countries has been putting "technology relatedness" at the core, focusing on the relationship between emerging industries and local established technologies. It is necessary to examine the applicability of analysis framework to China experiencing marketization and globalization. Based on the core concepts of evolutionary economic geography, combining with other approaches from other economic geographies and industrial economics, this article strongly argues that special attention should be given to the impacts of higher level political, economic and technological factors on regional branching in China's metropolitan areas. This article insists that the emergence and evolution of China's high-tech industry is the combined result of the local and global forces, the historical conditions and concentrated efforts, and technological innovation and institutional changes. And it builds a multi-scale and multi-factor dynamic analysis framework for our understanding of high-tech industrial branching in China's metropolitan areas. This article examines the processes and driving elements of the emergence of new industries in the contexts of transitional and globalizing China, taking the emergence of the biotechnology industry of Wuhan as a case, with an aim to understand the processes and dynamics of high-tech industry in the Chinese metropolitan areas. The methods used in this article include case studies, field research, in-depth interviews, spatial analysis and statistical data analysis. The main research outputs include: the technological relatedness, the universities and research institutes and enterprises are of much importance to the emergence of Wuhan biotechnology industry, local governments, multinationals, and overseas returnees, are also important factors, which are different from those in developed countries where new technology producing institutions are regarded as being critical to industrial branching. To a large extent, high-tech industry development in China is currently still on the factor-intensive and quantity-driven path, rather than an innovation-based one.

Key wordsevolutionary economic geography    regional branching    biotechnology industry    transitional countries    multi-scales
收稿日期: 2018-01-06      出版日期: 2018-08-03
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41471113,41530751)
引用本文:   
刘志高, 张薇 . 中国大都市区高新技术产业分叉过程及动力机制——以武汉生物产业为例[J]. 地理研究, 2018, 37(7): 1349-1363.
LIU Zhigao, ZHANG Wei . The process and dynamics of high-tech industrial branching in China's metropolitan areas: A case study of biotechnology industry in Wuhan[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2018, 37(7): 1349-1363.
链接本文:  
http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/10.11821/dlyj201807008      或      http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I7/1349
Fig. 1  中国高新区产业分叉机制理论框架
Fig. 2  武汉·中国光谷
调研机构 主要调研内容
政府 生物产业培育和发展背景(包括政府层面、学术界及企业界)
生物产业对经济的带动作用
生物产业与光谷的主导产业光电子信息产业之间的关系如何
武汉光谷的扩容过程,以及生物产业基地的设立背景和扩容过程
武汉光谷企业名单,及相关资料
大学和研究机构 产业孵化、技术合作的背景和重点领域
生物产业与其他产业的关系
与武汉光谷生物产业合作的方式和效果
相关科研团队与全球其他区域的合作方式和效果
科研人员创业的相关政策
大学科技园的主导产业、规模及扩容过程
大学科技园的产业孵化情况,包括孵化企业数量、规模,培养生物产业相关人员的数量,提供的设施和服务类型等
企业 企业创始人的经历
企业的发展历程
企业的区位变化过程
生物技术的最初来源
企业转向生物产业的主要原因
企业员工的学历结构和毕业院校结构
企业与大学和研究所联系的方式、频率及效果
企业的国际化程度,包括何时开拓国际市场,与国外哪些园区、大学和科研机构有合作关系
Tab. 1  武汉光谷调研主要内容
企业名称 法人 毕业院校 创始时间(年)
武汉兰丁医学高科技有限公司 孙小蓉 美国纽约Sloan肿瘤研究中心、洛克菲勒大学 2000
武汉华丽生物材料有限公司 刘剑 美国加州大学洛杉矶分校 2002
武汉昊博科技有限公司 2005
武汉禾元生物科技有限公司 杨代常 菲律宾国际水稻所 2006
武汉益承生物科技股份有限公司 夏献民 德国海德堡大学 2009
湖北谷瑞特生物技术有限公司 杜进平 英国剑桥大学 2009
武汉杨森生物技术有限公司 欧阳晨曦 德国汉诺威医科大学 2009
安翰光电技术(武汉)有限公司 肖国华 美国中弗罗里达大学 2009
武汉友芝友生物制药有限公司 周鹏飞 加拿大麦克马斯特大学 2010
中美华世通生物医药科技(武汉)有限公司 张发明 美国印第安纳大学 2010
武汉海吉力生物科技有限公司 2010
武汉格蓝丽富科技有限公司 邓亚光 美国斯坦福大学医学院 2010
武汉中帜生物科技有限公司 李先强 美国俄亥俄州托莱多医学院 2011
益基(武汉)生物科技有限公司 周慧君 美国康奈尔大学 2011
武汉普莱特生物医药技术有限公司 2012
Tab. 2  光谷生物城部分留学归国人员创办/经营企业名录
Fig. 3  光谷历次扩张及光谷生物城四个产业基地分布
Fig. 4  武汉部分主要生物企业谱系图
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