National central cities have strong competitiveness and specialized functions in selected sectors. Headquarters are the command and control centers of firms and the quantity of headquarters of large firms in a city reflects the city's commanding function. Thus, it is ideal to use the distribution of large firms' headquarters to measure national central cities' competitiveness and specialized functions. Based on a dataset of China's public listing firms, this paper explores the commanding functions of Chinese cities and their evolutions by calculating the command and control index (CCI). The empirical results show that (1) Beijing and Shanghai are the two most powerful command and control centers in China. Beijing obtained a significant increase in command function during 2005-2014, while Shanghai's CCI decreased. The rise of public listing firms from the finance sector contributes most to growing CCI of Beijing. (2) The finance and manufacturing are the two sectors with the highest CCI in China. The finance sector has gradually taken the leading role in determining a city's command role. According to the analysis of the national central cities, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou have obvious advantages in most industries and are nationwide comprehensive big city. The functional specialization of central cities in the remaining five national central cities is relatively low. In addition, there are obvious differences in the inter-linkages between the development of the central cities of eight national central cities and the surrounding areas. The reason for this is the extent of regional economic development and the characteristics of urban industrial development.
. 国家中心城市竞争力及其职能演变——基于上市企业总部的研究[J]. 地理研究,
2018, 37(7): 1364-1376.
. Competitiveness and function specialization of national central cities in China: An empirical study based on headquarters of China's pubic listing firms[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH,
2018, 37(7): 1364-1376.
[ShenJinzhen, ZhouYixing.The definition of world city and its implications for the development of Chinese cities. , 2003, (3): 13-16.]
刘玉芳. 北京与国际城市的比较研究. , 2008, 15(2): 104-110.
[LiuYufang.The research of comparing Beijing with international cities. , 2008, 15(2): 104-110.]
StricklandD, AikenM.Corporate influence and the german urban system: Headquarters location of german industrial corporations, 1950-1982. , 1984, 60(1): 38-54.https://www.jstor.org/stable/143901?origin=crossref
Taylor PJ, CsomósG.Cities as control and command centres: Analysis and interpretation. , 2012, 29(6): 408-411.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264275111001223
Using the Forbes2000 list of largest corporations for 2010, revenues generated by companies are aggregated for the cities in which they are headquartered. From this data cities are ranked by sector and overall. The main finding is how overwhelmingly well Tokyo does in this empirical exercise. This is despite Japan’s ‘economic miracle’ stalling two decades ago. We use Jane Jacobs interpretation of the role of large corporations to explain this contradiction.
[HeCanfei, XiaoXiaojun.Geography of multinational corporations in China: An empirical study of Fortune Global 500 multinational corporations in electronics and medical and chemical industries. , 2011, 66(12): 1669-1681.]
[PanFenghua, XiaYabo, LiuZuoli.The relocation of headquarters of public listed firms in China: A regional perspective study. , 2013, 68(4): 19-33.]
ZivengwaT, MashikaJ, Bokosi FK, et al.Stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe. , 2011, 3(5).http://www.oalib.com/paper/2064277
The main purpose of this study was to explore the causal link between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe using annual time series data for the period 1980 to 2008. The study evaluated the nature of the relationship between stock market development and economic growth in Zimbabwe. The stock market development was measured using two variables namely stock market size as measured by stock market capitalization as a ratio of GDP and stock market turnover as measured by the value of stocks traded as a ratio of stock market capitalisation. The study utilised advanced econometric techniques of Unit Root Tests, Vector Autoregressive (VAR) and Granger Causality Tests to explore the relationships. The empirical results showed a uni-directional causal link that runs from stock market development to economic growth and there is evidence of an indirect transmission mechanism through the effect of stock market development on investment.
Striking evidence is presented of a previously unremarked transformation of urban structure from mainly sectoral to mainly functional specialisation. We offer an explanation showing that this transformation is inextricably interrelated with changes in firms' organisation. A greater variety of business services for headquarters and of sector-specific intermediates for production plants within a city reduces costs, while congestion increases with city size. A fall in the costs of remote management leads to a transformation of the equilibrium urban and industrial structure. Cities shift from specialising by sector—with integrated headquarters and plants—to specialising mainly by function—with headquarters and business services clustered in larger cities, and plants clustered in smaller cities.
[HeCanfei, XiaoXiaojun, ZhouPeisi.Towards functional specialization of Chinese cities?: A perspective of locational strategy of multinational corporations in China. , 2012, 19(3): 20-29.]
Holloway SR, Wheeler JO.Corporate headquarters relocation and changes in metropolitan corporate dominance, 1980-1987. , 1991, 67(1): 54-74.https://www.jstor.org/stable/143636?origin=crossref
During the last 30 years, U.S. metropolitan economies have experienced tremendous restructuring, and the locations of corporate headquarters have increasingly exhibited spatial shifts, both deconcentrating and dispersing. Theoretical explanations have suggested that the United States is entering the third of four stages, in which we are now witnessing the drive to regional maturity with no dominant regional center. Changes in the distribution of metropolitan corporate dominance between 1980 and 1987 are examined and related to two sets of explanatory frameworks, one spatial and the other structural. Changes in metropolitan corporate dominance were strongly related to spatial shifts in headquarters and asset location, especially shifts due to merger and acquisition activity. Changes in dominance were less strongly related to structural factors reflecting the degree of transition to the emerging service-based economy, even though population and location relative to New York were important. Finally, the effect of spatial and structural factors on changes in metropolitan corporate dominance varied, depending on the size of the center.
Godfrey BJ, ZhouY.Ranking world cites: Multinational corporations and the global urban hierarchy. , 1999, 20(3): 268-281.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.2747/0272-3622.214.171.1248
World-city literature often relies on a priori assumptions rather than quantifiable measures to discern the global urban hierarchy. In search of comparable international indicators, many studies use the corporate headquarters of multinational corporations (MNCs) as primary locational data. Recognizing that MNCs play a dominant role in the global economy, we argue that reliance on headquarters locations alone distorts the contours of the urban hierarchy. The method overstates the importance of urban centers in the developed countries and economies dominated by large corporations; conversely, it underestimates the importance of lower-level circuits of regional communication, transaction centers in developing countries, and cities in less-centralized economies. This bias is not simply a technical matter: it asserts the power of the core economies, while understating the diversity and complexity of global interactions. We propose to include MNC first-level subsidiary locations in a more refined measure of world-city status.
Rice MD, Lyons DI.Geographies of corporate decision making and control: Development, applications and future directions in headquarters location research. , 2010, 4(4): 320-334.http://blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/%28ISSN%291749-8198
AbeK.The status of Tokyo in Japan from the standpoint of high-order urban function. , 2008, 63: 17-24.
Cohen RB.The new international division of labor, multinational corporations and urban hierarchy, in M Dear and A Scott, Eds. , 1981: 287-315.
FriedmannJ, WolffG.World city formation: An agenda for research and action. , 1982, 6(3): 309-344.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2427.1982.tb00384.x/full
The development of a global system of major cities is examined and the implications of this trend for the world economic system are considered particularly in terms of the effect on international movements of capital. An attempt is made to review the relevant literature and present a bibliography on this topic. (summary in FRE GER SPA) (ANNOTATION)
CsomósG.The command and control centers of the United States: An analysis of industry sectors influencing the position of cities. , 2013, 50(4): 241-251.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0016718513001978
[ZhongJinsong.Evaluation of the comprehensive strength of core cities in the Zhongyuan economic zone and analysis of their regional driving roles. , 2011, (5): 57-61.]
PanF, GuoJ, ZhangH, et al.Building a "Headquarters Economy": The geography of headquarters within Beijing and its implications for urban restructuring. , 2015, 42: 1-12.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264275114001504
SassenS.On concentration and centrality in the global city. , 1995.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/313571948_On_Concentration_and_Centrality_in_the_Global_City
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: On concentration and centrality in the global city
Testa WA.Headquarters research and implications for local development. , 2006, 20(2): 111-116.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0891242406286270
Drawing from both the professional literature and from a conference held at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago in 2004, the author summarizes findings and draws implications concerning the locational tendencies of stand-alone headquarters operations. In the United States, the geography of large company headquarters is becoming more dispersed toward medium-sized metropolitan areas even as the headquarters needs for urban infrastructure and amenities continue to sharpen. The location of the firm0964s branch plant locations will be critical for many headquarters, so developing a strategy focused on a region0964s own industry specializations should be considered. So too, as the organizational structure of firms becomes more complex and globally dispersed, many specialized establishments can be found under the same umbrella, making it imperative for local development practitioners to determine their region0964s functional niche.