This paper critically reviews the theoretical thread, contribution and problems of the studies of strategic coupling. By examining the conceptualization, explanatory variables and the analytical framework of this concept, it finds that the spatiality of strategic coupling is ambiguous. The three-fold typology and mechanism is based on empirical observation, while lacking of theoretical reasoning based on spatial variables. By learning from the studies of global production network and global value chain, this paper argues that the strategic coupling studies shall be advanced by absorbing spatial variables from traditional studies in economic geography, rather than from other disciplines. As an attempt, this paper proposes two spatial variables, locational advantage (LA) and spatial stickiness (SS), for explaining the formation, variety and impacts of strategic coupling in the globalization of latecomer regions. Leveraging the low-high weight of the proposed new variables, there are three potential types of strategic coupling. When LA and SS are both low, captive coupling tends to happen in which later-comer firms and regions play as a follower of global leading firms. When LA and SS are both high, absorptive coupling become possible in which late-comer actors have high bargaining power to negotiate for ideal partnership with global leading firms. When LA is high while SS is low, cooperative coupling may happen in which both counterparts exchange resources under a relatively balanced power relationship. In contrast, when LA is low while SS is high, strategic coupling will not happen. This paper contributes to the literature of global production network by fixing the problem of spatial ambiguity of strategic coupling. The proposed new variables are derived from traditional studies in economic geography so that the strategic coupling can draw upon many classical theories and studies. This effort reminds the disciplinary position of strategic coupling for being an economic geographical study. This renewed framework has salient implication for latecomer economies. On the one hand, by analyzing the spatial stickiness of an industry, we can evaluate the potential of industrial relocation or upgrading within a region and then strategize relevant policies to slow or facilitate the process. On the other hand, for fostering regional assets, a region shall focus on immobile resources such as domestic market environment, regionalized production networks and local talents, rather than using replicable policies such as fiscal incentives.
HendersonJ, DickenP, HessM, et al.Global production networks and the analysis of economic development. , 2002, 9(3): 436-464.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09692290210150842
This article outlines a framework for the analysis of economic integration and its relation to the asymmetries of economic and social development. Consciously breaking with state-centric forms of social science, it argues for a research agenda that is more adequate to the exigencies and consequences of globalization than has traditionally been the case in 'development studies'. Drawing on earlier attempts to analyse the cross-border activities of firms, their spatial configurations and developmental consequences, the article moves beyond these by proposing the framework of the 'global production network' (GPN). It explores the conceptual elements involved in this framework in some detail and then turns to sketch a stylized example of a GPN. The article concludes with a brief indication of the benefits that could be delivered by research informed by GPN analysis.
DickenP, KellyP, OldsK, et al.Chains and networks, territories and scales: Toward a relational framework for analyzing the global economy. , 2001, 1(2): 89-112.http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/glob/1/2
Coe NM, DickenP, HessM.Global production networks: Realizing the potential. , 2008, 8(3): 271-295.https://academic.oup.com/joeg/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jeg/lbn002
ABSTRACT Understanding and conceptualizing the complexities of the contemporary global economy is a challenging but vitally important task. In this article, we critically evaluate the potential of one interpretive framework—the global production networks (GPN) perspective—for analysing the global economy and its impacts on territorial development. After situating the approach in relation to other cognate chain/network approaches, the article proceeds to review and evaluate a number of underdeveloped areas that need to be understood and incorporated more fully if the framework is to deliver on its early potential. The article concludes with a consideration of the key research issues facing work in this area.
基于从全球生产网络(GPNs)层面分析区域发展战略性耦合(strategic coupling)的视角,本文探讨自21世纪初以来,台资跨境生产网络在中国大陆的空间重组,特别是个人电脑(计算机)企业从珠三角向长三角地区再布局的动力机制与格局。通过对相关企业的深度访谈与个案研究,指出台资个人电脑企业在珠三角地区与长三角地区的空间再布局是在各区域地方制度下,GPNs架构中全球领先企业(global lead firms)与分布在2个三角洲区域处于GPNs较低层级供应企业(supplier firms)之间进行不同的战略性耦合之结果。研究阐明在经济全球化背景下‘新区域主义’理论对区域发展仅分析区域内部因素之局限性,因应跨地域(trans-local)动力的出现,全球生产网络视角下区域内部与外部因素的战略耦合,已成为理解全球经济化下区域发展的重要理论框架。
[YangChun.Restructuring the cross-border production networks of Taiwanese investment in China: Relocation of personal computer firms from Pearl River Delta to Yangtze River Delta. , 2011, 66(10): 1343-1354.]
Yeung H WC. From followers to market leaders: Asian electronics firms in the global economy. , 2007, 48(1): 1-25.http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/apv/48/1
Abstract Abstract: This paper aims to explain how a number of leading electronics firms from Asian newly industrialised economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan are articulated into global production networks and become major players in their respective market niches. Developing a triangular theoretical framework, I seek to explain the complex relationships between the dynamic articulation of these leading Asian electronics firms into different global production networks and their simultaneous upgrading from typical followers to market leaders. As a critique of the dominant developmental state discourse, I argue that the interplay between corporate strategies and home base advantages within the context of changing global production networks can offer a better explanation of the differentiated competitive outcomes of these Asian firms. This paper draws upon original data collected through personal interviews with top executives from leading electronics firms in the four Asian newly industrialised economies. I conclude the paper with some implications for theory and policy in relation to corporate development in Asian economies.
Yeung H WC. Regional development and the competitive dynamics of global production networks: An East Asian perspective. , 2009, 43(3): 325-351.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00343400902777059
YangY, J Hsu, C Ching. Revisiting the Silicon Island? The geographically varied 'Strategic Coupling' in the development of high-technology parks in Taiwan. , 2009, 43(3): 369-384.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00343400902777067
YangC.Strategic Coupling of regional development in global production networks: Redistribution of Taiwanese personal computer investment from the Pearl River Delta to the Yangtze River Delta, China. , 2009, 43(3): 385-407.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00343400802508836
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Coe NM, HessM.Local and regional development: A global production network approach. . Routledge: Abingdon, 2011: 128-138.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/281348868_Local_and_regional_development_a_global_production_network_approach
Wavelength control of optical source at subscriber premises from central office for WDM optical access network Yamamoto T. , Horita M. , Horiuchi Y. , Usami M. , Suzuki M. , Yamazaki K. , Uetsuka H. Proceedings of the IEICE General Conference 2001年.通信(2), 505, 2001-03-07
MacKinnonD. Beyond strategic coupling: reassessing the firm-region nexus in global production networks. , 2012, 12(1): 227-245.https://academic.oup.com/joeg/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jeg/lbr009
Global Production Networks (GPNs) have become a key focus of research in economic geography and related fields in recent years. This article has two main aims. First, I offer a critical appraisal of GPN research, focusing on its contribution to the rethinking of regional development processes and the notion of ‘strategic coupling’ in particular. Second, the article aims to forge a new set of links between GPNs and evolutionary economic geography (EEG), which has also attracted considerable recent interest as a framework for assessing the evolution of economic landscapes. In particular, I use evolutionary approaches and the concept of path dependence to develop a broader and deeper conception of the range of coupling, recoupling and decoupling processes that take place between regions and GPNs, going beyond strategic coupling per se.
YusufS, Altaf MA, NabeshimaK.Global Production Networking and Technological Change in East Asia. , 2004.http://ci.nii.ac.jp/ncid/BA68124235
This book examines the effects of the changing global geography of production for the growth prospects of East Asian economies. The authors conclude that in the face of a global environment, economies in East Asia need to adapt to the changing character of global production networks and to nurture and develop technological capabilities in order to sustain their growth prospects. This is the third volume in a series of publications from a study co-sponsored by the Government of Japan and the World Bank to examine the sources of economic growth in East Asia. The study was initiated in 1999 with the objective of identifying the most promising path to development in the light of global and regional changes.
Poon J PH, HsuJ, JeongwookS. The geography of learning and knowledge acquisition among Asian latecomers. , 2006, 6(4): 541-559.http://academic.oup.com/joeg/article/6/4/541/1014412/The-geography-of-learning-and-knowledge
This paper examines the geography of technological learning and knowledge acquisition among Taiwanese and Korean firms. Specifically it focuses on the knowledge sourcing experience of Asian manufacturing latecomers in the United States (US). The Asian latecomer model of learning is characterized by a triangular spatial division of knowledge sourcing and technological production that involves the transfer and circulation of knowledge across multiple spatial scales. At the regional level, Korean and Taiwanese firms rely on local learning systems in the form of science parks to create favorable domestic agglomeration economies that are conducive for knowledge accretion. At the trans-regional level, non-core R&D and the manufacturing of technology-driven products are geographically concentrated in China. Lastly, local and trans-regional learning are supplemented by international sourcing of knowledge through the location and investment of R&D facilities in the US. To the extent that extra-local knowledge sourcing in the US is associated with the acquisition of new knowledge forms, such a multiscalar spatial strategy is expected to help transform Asian learners from technology latecomer to technology newcomer status. Copyright 2006, Oxford University Press.
TokatliN, KizilgunO.Upgrading in the global clothing industry: Mavi jeans and the transformation of a Turkish firm from full-package to brand-name manufacturing and retailing. , 2004, 80(3): 221-240.
SturgeonT, Van BiesebroeckJ, GereffiG.Value chains, networks and clusters: Reframing the global automotive industry. , 2008, 8(3): 297-321.https://academic.oup.com/joeg/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jeg/lbn007
IvarssonI, Alvstam CG.Upgrading in global value-chains: A case study of technology-learning among IKEA-suppliers in China and Southeast Asia. , 2010, 11(4): 731-752.
CrestanelloP, TattaraG.Industrial clusters and the governance of the global value chain: The Romania-Veneto network in footwear and clothing. , 2010, 45(2): 187-203.http://arca.unive.it/handle/10278/3499
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GereffiG.International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain. , 1999, 48(1): 37-70.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022199698000750
Abstract This article uses a global commodity chains perspective to analyze the social and organizational dimensions of international trade networks. In linking international trade and industrial upgrading, this article specifies: the mechanisms by which organizational learning occurs in trade networks; typical trajectories from assembly to OEM and OBM export roles; and the organizational conditions that facilitate industrial upgrading moves such as the shift from assembly to full-package networks. The empirical focus is the apparel industry, with an emphasis on Asia.
SchmitzH.Local Enterprises in the Global Economy. , 2004.http://www.gandalf.com.pl/book/local-enterprises-in-the-global-economy/
GereffiG, HumphreyJ, SturgeonT.The governance of global value chains. , 2005, 12(1): 78-104.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09692290500049805
This article builds a theoretical framework to help explain governance patterns in global value chains. It draws on three streams of literature - transaction costs economics, production networks, and technological capability and firm-level learning - to identify three variables that play a large role in determining how global value chains are governed and change. These are: (1) the complexity of transactions, (2) the ability to codify transactions, and (3) the capabilities in the supply-base. The theory generates five types of global value chain governance - hierarchy, captive, relational, modular, and market - which range from high to low levels of explicit coordination and power asymmetry. The article highlights the dynamic and overlapping nature of global value chain governance through four brief industry case studies: bicycles, apparel, horticulture and electronics.
FrederickS, GereffiG.Upgrading and restructuring in the global apparel value chain: Why China and Asia are outperforming Mexico and Central America. International Journal of Technological Learning, , 2011, 4(1/2/3): 67-95.
GereffiG, Fernandez SK.Global value chain analysisi: A primer. Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness, Durham, , 2011.
HessM.Governance, value chains and networks: An afterword. , 2008, 37(3): 452-459.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03085140802172722
, 2004. His research concerns globalization and regional development; firms, sectors and strategies; global production networks; institutions and embeddedness.
Yeung HW, Coe NM.Toward a dynamic theory of global production networks. , 2015, 91(1): 29-58.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ecge.2015.91.issue-1
Global production networks (GPN) are organizational platforms through which actors in different regional and national economies compete and cooperate for a greater share of value creation, transformation, and capture through geographically dispersed economic activity. Existing conceptual frameworks on global value chains (GVC) and what we termGPN 1.0tend to under-theorize the origins and dynamics of these organizational platforms and to overemphasize their governance typologies (e.g., modular, relational, and captive modes in GVC theory) or analytical categories (e.g., power and embeddedness in GPN 1.0). Building on this expanding literature, our article aims to contribute toward the reframing of existing GPN-GVC debates and the development of a more dynamic theory of global production networks that can better explain the emergence of different firm-specific activities, strategic network effects, and territorial outcomes in the global economy. It is part of a wider initiative PN 2.0 in short hat seeks to offer novel theoretical insights into why and how the organization and coordination of global production networks varies significantly within and across different industries, sectors, and economies. Taking an actor-centered focus toward theory development, we tackle a significant gap in existing work by systematically conceptualizing thecausal driversof global production networks in terms of their competitive dynamics (optimizing cost-capability ratios, market imperatives, and financial discipline) and risk environments. These capitalist dynamics are theorized as critical independent variables that shape the four main strategies adopted by economic actors in (re)configuring their global production networks and, ultimately, the developmental outcomes in different industries, regions, and countries.
[WangYanhua, HaoJun, ZhaoJianji, et al.From GPN 1.0 to 2.0: Review and progress in the study of the global production networks. Geography and , 2017, 33(6): 87-93.]
Liu WD, DickenP.Transnational corporations and 'obligated embeddedness': Foreign direct investment in China's automobile industry. , 2006, 38(7): 1229-1247.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1068/a37206
[LinGeng.Location and power: A case study of X market in Guangzhou city. , 2011, 30(9): 1577-1591.]
Bennett RJ.Entrepreneurial competition and industrial location. , 2003, 27(1): 134-135.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/030913250302700118
react-text: 226 Using company accounts data for 5 countries (US, UK, Japan, France and Germany) we analyse the relationship between intangible assets and productivity. We integrate the company data with industry information on tangible and intangible investments and skill composition of the labour force. The industry data are summarised in two different taxonomies, factor and skill intensive groups, which... /react-text react-text: 227 /react-text [Show full abstract]
CarrM.A contribution to the review and critique of behavioral industrial-location theory. , 1983, 7(3): 386-401.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/030913258300700305
react-text: 312 This paper presents some results of an empirical investigation of the locational implications of retrenchment, rationalisation and aggregate em ployment decline. It indicates that the present economic situation in the United Kingdom may be having certain distinctive spatial/regional repercussions. The paper examines in particular the changing distribution of employment between the depressed... /react-text react-text: 313 /react-text [Show full abstract]
LiuY.The dynamics of local upgrading in globalizing latecomer regions: A geographical analysis. , 2017, 51(6): 880-893.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00343404.2016.1143924
(2017). The dynamics of local upgrading in globalizing latecomer regions: a geographical analysis. Regional Studies: Vol. 51, Theme issue: European Cohesion Policy in context, pp. 880-893. doi: 10.1080/00343404.2016.1143924
MarkusenA.Sticky places in slippery space: A typology of industrial districts. , 1996, 72(3): 293-313.https://www.jstor.org/stable/144402?origin=crossref
As advances in transportation and information obliterate distance, cities and regions face a tougher time anchoring income-generating activities. In probing the conditions under which some manage to remain 090008sticky090009 places in 090008slippery090009 space, this paper rejects the 090008new industrial district,090009 in either its Marshallian or more recent Italianate form, as the dominant paradigmatic solution. I identify three additional types of industrial districts, with quite disparate firm configurations, internal versus external orientations, and governance structures: a hub-and-spoke industrial district, revolving around one or more dominant, externally oriented firms; a satellite platform, an assemblage of unconnected branch plants embedded in external organization links; and the state-anchored district, focused on one or more public-sector institutions. The strengths and weaknesses of each are reviewed. The hub-and-spoke and satellite platform variants are argued to be more prominent in the United States than the other two. The findings suggest that the study of industrial districts requires a broader institutional approach and must encompass embeddedness across district boundaries. The research results suggest that a purely locally targeted development strategy will fail to achieve its goals.
Porter ME.The economic performance of regions. , 2003, 37(6&7): 549-578.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0034340032000108688
P ORTER M. E. (2003) The economic performance of regions, Reg. Studies 37 , 549-578. This paper examines the basic facts about the regional economic performance, the composition of regional economies and the role of clusters in the US economy over period of 1990 to 2000. The performance of regional economies varies markedly in terms of wage, wage growth, employment growth and patenting rate. Based on the distribution of economic activity across geography, we classify US industries into traded, local and resource-dependent. Traded industries account for only about one-third of employment but register much higher wages, far higher rates of innovation and influence local wages. We delineate clusters of traded industries using co-location patterns across US regions. The mix of clusters differs markedly across regions. The performance of regional economies is strongly influenced by the strength of local clusters and the vitality and plurality of innovation. Regional wage differences are dominated by the relative performance of the region in the clusters in which it has positions, with the particular mix of clusters secondary. A series of regional policy implications emerge from the findings. P ORTER M. E. (2003) La performance économique des regions, Reg. Studies 37 , 549-578. Cet article cherche à examiner les principes fondamentaux de la performance économique régionale, de la structure des économies régionales, et du r00le des groupements dans l'économie des Etats-Unis de 1990 à 2000. La performance des économies régionales varie sensiblement du point de vue des salaires, de la croissance des salaires, de la hausse de l'emploi, et du nombre des brevets. A partir de la répartition de l'activité économique géographique, on classe les entreprises industrielles aux Etats-Unis sous les rubriques commerciale, locale, et dépendante des ressources. Les entreprises industrielles à vocation commerciale n'expliquent qu'un tiers de l' emploi mais laissent voir des salaires nettement plus élevés, des taux d'innovation bien plus importants, et influent sur les salaires locaux. Employant des distributions de localisations partagées à travers les Etats-Unis, on délimite des groupements d'entreprises industrielles à vocation commerciale. La structure des groupements varie sensiblement suivant la région. La performance des économies régionales est fortement influencé par la force des groupements locaux et par la vitalité et par la pluralité de l'innovation. Les écarts des salaires réels s'expliquent primordialement par la performance relative de la région quant aux groupements où elle est pré sente, la structure particulière des groupements n'étant que d'une importance secondaire. Il en résulte toute une série d'implications pour la politique. P ORTER M. E. (2000) Die wirtschaftliche Leistungskraft von Regionen, Reg. Studies 37 , 549-578. Dieser Beitrag analysiert Kerndaten regionaler Wirtschaftsr01ume in den Vereinigten Staaten, insbesondere ihre wirtschaftliche Leistungskraft, ihre Zusammensetzung und die Rolle regionaler Cluster. Die Regionen der Vereinigten Staaten unterschieden sich in den Jahren 1990 bis 2000 deutlich in ihrer wirtschaftlichen Leistungskraft gemessen an Lohnniveau und - wachstum, Besch01ftigungsentwicklung, und Patentrate. Basierend auf der geographischen Konzentration 02knomischer Aktitivt01t klassifizieren wir Industriezweige als überregional ("traded'), lokal oder abh01ngig von der Pr01senz von Natursch01 tzen. Cluster überregionaler Industrien besch01ftigen nur circa ein Drittel aller Erwerbst01tigen, verzeichnen aber überdurchschnittliche L02 hne und signifikant h02here Innovationsraten als die Gesamtwirtschaft. Die relative Bedeutung einzelner Cluster innerhalb der Gruppe überregionaler Industrien unterscheidet sich deutlich im regionalen Vergleich. Der wirtschaftliche Erfolg einer Region wird stark von der relative Leistungskraft und Innovationsst01rke der dort angesiedelten überregionalen Cluster beeinflusst. So hat das relative Lohnniveau in den überregionalen Clustern in einer Region einen dominanten Einfluss auf das regionale Lohnniveau, w01hrend die spezifische Identit01t dieser Cluster nur eine sekund01re Rolle spielt. Der Beitrag entwickelt aus dieser Analyse eine Reihe von Implikationen für die Wirtschaftspolitik.
[WuJiawei, ChenWen, YuanFeng.Progress of the reconstruction of industrial district theory and the empirical study. , 2015, 34(3): 487-503.]
YangC.From strategic coupling to recoupling and decoupling: Restructuring global production networks and regional evolution in China. , 2012, 21(7): 1046-1063.
Ozawa T.Institutions, IndustrialUpgrading,Economic Performance in Japan- the 'Flying-Geese' Paradigm of Catch-up Growth. Northampton, , 2005.
RamasamyB, Yeung M C H. Davids Versus the Goliath: Locational tournament for FDI among developing countries. , 2002, 7(3): 299-318.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/229011210_Davids_versus_The_goliath_Locational_tournament_for_FDI_among_developing_countries
As the link between FDI and economic growth became evidently clear, the tournament among developing countries to attract greater amounts of FDI intensified. China has emerged as the front-runner, attracting between one fifth and one quarter of all FDI flowing into the developing world. In this paper we attempt to identify the determinants that makes China the lead country. We find that the market size and market growth are the only two determinants that catapult China into the lead. Other countries need to differentiate themselves in other areas, for instance by emphasizing policy initiatives and specializing in other types of investment like resource seeking, efficiency and strategic FDI.
Sit VF, YangC.Foreign-investment-induced exo-urbanisation in the Pearl River Delta, China. , 1997, 34(4): 647-677.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1080/0042098975961
Summary. Urbanisation in the People' s Republic of China during 1949-78 was mainly driven by internal forces under a self-reliant, centrally planned economic system. Since the Opening and Reform initiated in 1978, external forces, especially foreign investment inflow, have emerged as a new driving force of urbanisation in some parts of China, particularly in the Pearl River Delta (the Delta) of South China. This study investigates the nature and pattern of this new type of urbanisation, which we label as exo(genous)-urbanisation. Foreign direct investment (FDI) into the Delta is mainly characterised by small and medium-scale, labour-intensive, processing-types of manufacturing and trade-creative investment coming from Hong Kong and Macao. It shows a spatial tendency within the host region's urban hierarchy in favour of small cities and counties and a distinct border orientation. This contrasts with the concentration in large metropolises or economic core regions found in most less developing countries. Such FDI has interacted with internal reforms to effect significant changes in the Delta during 1978-93, such as economic restructuring, rural industrialisation, the emergence of an export-oriented economy and its rapid integration with the world economy. It has also generated massive population in-migration and dramatic landscape transformation there. Put simply, exo-urbanisation in the Delta shows a predominant growth of small urban centres particularly those along the border with Hong Kong and Macao and hence a more equal level of urbanisation in the Delta and a declining primacy of Guangzhou, the regional primate city. However, exo-urbanisation in the Delta also raises doubts on social and environmental fronts as well as on its durability. The FDI inflow and the newly created export-oriented industrialisation and urban growth in the Delta are obviously subject to vicissitudes of the world market. In spite of this, contemporary urbanisation theories should give attention to the role of external forces. Further studies on exo-urbanisation are not only practical for development and planning in areas under intensive inflow of foreign investment, but could also enrich the literature on the globalisation process and its impacts on the developing countries.
[LiuWei, LiuYi, LiXun.The evolution and influential factors of the innovation networks of local firms in a globalizing region: A comparative study between Dolim Group and Elec-Tech group in the Pearl River Delta, China. , 2010, 30(8): 1316-1321, 1394.]
LiuY, YangC.Strategic coupling of local firms in global production networks: The rise of the home appliance industry in Shunde, China. , 2014, 54(4): 444-463.