Over the last decade, the intensive and rapid retail internationalization has attracted wide attention across the social sciences. In particular, the local supply network impacts from retail transnational corporations (TNCs) purchasing activities have been discussed extensively by academic scholars, especially in terms of the host economies of Latin America. However, it is surprising that little similar research has been conducted in the world's biggest retailing market - China. Thus this paper adopts the global production networks (GPN) approach to explore these local supply network transformations in the Chinese market, and also identifies the mechanisms of upgrading process. The GPN framework refers to networks of firms and institutions, which pinpoints where value is created, enhanced and then captured throughout supply networks, highlights the dynamics of power within these webs of production, and reveals how retail TNCs make their attempt at embedding themselves in local markets. With the extensive interview-based fieldwork undertaken in Shanghai, China between 2014 and 2015 on two specific local supply networks, i.e., branded fresh milk and own branded edible oil, the paper examines the five ongoing shifts of the procurement activities adopted by retail TNCs in the host market. They are centralization of procurement, upgrading logistical systems, adoption of the specialized/dedicated wholesalers, private-standards enforcement and the development of private labels. The analysis demonstrates significant variations in both retailer management practices and strategic responses by suppliers between the two products. It reveals the dynamic power relations among retail TNCs, suppliers, wholesalers and logistics providers. In addition, a considerable restructuring and reconfiguration process has taken place in the local distribution, wholesale and agricultural production sectors, due to the increasing power exercised by retail TNCs. Finally, the paper calls for an in-depth study on the retailer power and its impacts based on the nuanced and dynamic approach, in an aim at better understanding the complexity and unevenness of supply network restructuring in emerging markets.
. 基于全球生产网络视角下的零售供应链升级与转型——以鲜奶和大豆油为例[J]. 地理研究,
2018, 37(7): 1435-1446.
. Retailing supply networks transformation and upgrading within the global production networks (GPN): The case studies of fresh milk and edible oil[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH,
2018, 37(7): 1435-1446.
HendersonJ, DickenP, HessM, et al.Global production networks and the analysis of economic development. , 2002, 9(3): 436-464.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09692290210150842
This article outlines a framework for the analysis of economic integration and its relation to the asymmetries of economic and social development. Consciously breaking with state-centric forms of social science, it argues for a research agenda that is more adequate to the exigencies and consequences of globalization than has traditionally been the case in 'development studies'. Drawing on earlier attempts to analyse the cross-border activities of firms, their spatial configurations and developmental consequences, the article moves beyond these by proposing the framework of the 'global production network' (GPN). It explores the conceptual elements involved in this framework in some detail and then turns to sketch a stylized example of a GPN. The article concludes with a brief indication of the benefits that could be delivered by research informed by GPN analysis.
AllenJ.Lost Geographies of Power. ed. Henry N, Sadler J. RGS-IBG Book Series. , 2003.
DickenP, Kelly PF, OldsK, et al.Chains and networks, territories and scales: Towards a relational framework for analysing the global economy. , 2001, 1(2): 89-112.http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/glob/1/2
CoeN.Global production networks. . Oxford: Elsevier, 2009: 556-562.
HessM.Spatial'relationships? Towards a reconceptualization of embeddedness. , 2004, 28(2): 165-186.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1191/0309132504ph479oa
The concept of embeddedness has gained much prominence in economic geography over the last decade, as much work has been done on the social and organizational foundations of economic activities and regional development. Unlike the original conceptualizations, however, embeddedness is mostly conceived of as a 'spatial' concept related to the local and regional levels of analysis. By revisiting the early literature on embeddedness - in particular the seminal work of Karl Polanyi and Mark Granovetter - and critically engaging with what I will call an 'overterritorialized' concept, a different view on the fundamental categories of embeddedness is proposed. This reconceptualization then is illustrated using the poststructuralist metaphor of a rhizome to interpret the notion of embeddedness and its applicability to different geographical scales.
GranovetterM.Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. , 1985, 91(3): 481-510.https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/228311
How behavior and institutions are affected by social relations is one of the classic questions of social theory. This paper concerns the extent to which economic action is embedded in structures of social relations, in modern industrial society. Although the usual neoclasical accounts provide an "undersocialized" or atomized-actor explanation of such action, reformist economists who attempt to bring social structure back in do so in the "oversocialized" way criticized by Dennis Wrong. Under-and oversocialized accounts are paradoxically similar in their neglect of ongoing structures of social relations, and a sophisticated account of economic action must consider its embeddedness in such structures. The argument in illustrated by a critique of Oliver Williamson's "markets and hierarchies" research program.
ReardonT, TimmerC, MintenB.Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers. , 2012, 109(31): 12332-12337.http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1003160108
A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers" ndia and Vietnam ave grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.
Coe NM, HessM.The internationalization of retailing: Implications for supply network restructuring in East Asia and Eastern Europe. , 2005, 5(4): 449-473.http://academic.oup.com/joeg/article/5/4/449/923077/The-internationalization-of-retailing-implications
CoeN, BokR.Retail transitions in Southeast Asia. The International Review of Retail, , 2014, 24(5): 479-499.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09593969.2014.977324
(2014). Retail transitions in Southeast Asia. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research: Vol. 24, Retail Transitions in Southeast Asia, pp. 479-499. doi: 10.1080/09593969.2014.977324
WellerA.Shifting spatialities of power: The case of Australasian aviation. , 2009, 40(5): 790-799.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0016718509000426
This paper explores how different modalities, spatialities and scales of power operate in a geopolitical context. By tracing the dynamic geographies of state and firm power in the events leading up to the collapse of a major Australian firm, Ansett Airlines, it reveals the difference that place and position make to the creation and use of power. The paper stresses agents’ relational positioning, their ‘places’ in multiple networks of association and the ways in which their past actions and visions of the future condition their strategic options. The paper contextualises the workings of power and explores how power relationships are re-configured in specific contested events. It concludes that power cannot be separated from the spatial and temporal dimensions of actual contexts, from actor’s positions in contexts, or from their strategic objectives.
HattersleyL, IsaacsB, BurchD.Supermarket power, own-labels, and manufacturer counterstrategies: International relations of cooperation and competition in the fruit canning industry. , 2013, 30(2): 225-233.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10460-012-9407-5
ReardonT.Retail companies as integrators of value-chains in developing countries. , 2005.
ReardonT, HensonS, BerdeguéJ.'Proactive fast-tracking' diffusion of supermarkets in developing countries: Implications for market institutions and trade. , 2007, 7(4): 399-431.https://academic.oup.com/joeg/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jeg/lbm007
ChenK, HuD, SongH.Linking markets to smallholder dairy farmers in China: Quality as a new driver, in improved market access and smallholder dairy farmer participation for sustainable dairy development: Lessons learned studies. FAORAP Regional Workshop. Chiang Mai, , 2008.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/242306674_Linking_Markets_to_Smallholder_Dairy_Farmers_in_China_Quality_as_a_New_Driver?_sg=U4y6Sje_nmIKAGgx3Ig1gV9ZT-089aov1ahvFa_r_ek7V9O0-5PQEyVk0RE06qG_jgvDzOvcN4yDA8Ya1BlVMw
Globally China is the largest country in terms of population in the world. However, up till now, in terms of dairy consumption and production, it is relatively small. The population in China represents one-fifth of global totals but total dairy product output accounts for only 4
[YangWeimin, HuDinghuan.Research on the dairy industry chain and organisation pattern innovation under the background of food safety. , 2010, 42(6): 32-37.]
FullerF, HuangJ, MaH, et al.Got milk? The rapid rise of China's dairy sector and its future prospects. , 2006, 31(3): 201-215.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0306919206000327
This paper synthesizes recent research and new empirical findings to build a more comprehensive understanding of developments in China’s dairy sector. China’s tremendous rise in dairy demand has been driven by several mutually reinforcing factors: including rapid income growth, promotion by the government and dairy industry, changes in urban lifestyles, and the development of new, more sophisticated marketing channels. Domestic milk output has grown to satisfy rising demand largely by increasing the dairy herd. Substantial increases in productivity have been achieved through technology adoption, but there is evidence that the torrid growth has created inefficiencies because adaptations to marketing rules, infrastructure, and institutions have not kept pace with the changing environment. These results suggest there is ample room for future growth in both domestic milk production and dairy demand, but multinational firms and imported products will likely play and increasing role as China’s dairy market continues to develop.
Ng SW, ZhaiF, Popkin BM.Impacts of China's edible oil pricing policy on nutrition. , 2008, 66(2): 414-426.http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2213886/
Abstract China's health profile has shifted to one dominated by obesity and nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NR-NCDs) necessitating an examination of how economic policies can improve this situation. Edible oil consumption is responsible for much of the increase in energy density of the Chinese diet and particularly linked with the shifting burden of NR-NCDs toward the poor. Longitudinal analysis among adults in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) covering the period 1991-2000 revealed that price policy effects on edible oil can influence dietary composition (particularly of the poor) and the results identify a key preventive policy need.
BiX, DongX, HuangJ, et al.Securing small producer participation in restructured national and regional agri-food systems. , 2004.
王晶. 被怡亚通取代. , 2010-05-08(5).
[Wang Jing. Being replaced by eternal Aisa. , 2010-05-08(5).]
张雅君. 中粮联手怡亚通,对抗益海嘉里渠道封锁. , 2010-07-12(10).
[Zhang Yajun. Collabration between China Agribusiness and Eternal Asia: To break the channel blockade by Wilmar. , 2010-07-12(10.]
WangZ, MaoY, GaleF.Chinese consumer demand for food safety attributes in milk products. , 2008, 33(1): 27-36.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0306919207000346
Little is known about emerging demands for food safety among consumers in developing countries. This study presents results of an investigation of consumer awareness, willingness to pay, and price premiums for milk products manufactured using Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) management, a quality management system used to reduce food safety risks. Chinese food processors initially sought HACCP certification to access export markets, but now HACCP is rapidly being adopted for domestic products and HACCP logos have begun to appear on labels in China. A survey of Beijing consumers found that less than one in five respondents was aware of HACCP, and most who had heard of HACCP had learned about it within the previous year. After receiving information on HACCP nearly all respondents were willing to pay a modest price premium for HACCP-certified products. Products with HACCP labels in Beijing supermarkets sold at a price premium of about 5% over products without such labels, holding other product attributes constant. The results indicate that demand for food safety is emerging as an attribute demanded by Chinese consumers.
[ZongHuiming, ZhouSuhong, YanXiaopei.Research on the spatial network of local comprehensive third-party logistics company under globalization: Taking Tengbang Logistics Company as a case. , 2015, 34(5): 944-952.]