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地理研究    2018, Vol. 37 Issue (7): 1447-1459     DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201807015
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产业集群的地方嵌入与全球生产网络链接——以上海文化创意产业园区为例
何金廖1,2(),黄贤金2(),司月芳3
1. 华东师范大学城市发展研究院,上海 200062
2.南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,人文地理研究中心,南京 210093
3. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200062
Local embeddedness and global production network of industrial clusters: Case study of the cultural creative districts in Shanghai
HE Jinliao1,2(),HUANG Xianjin2(),SI Yuefang3
1. Institute of Urban Development and Research, Shanghai 200062, China
2. Research Center of Human Geography, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
3. School of Urban & Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China;
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摘要 

以全球生产网络理论为基础,通过问卷调查和深度访谈法,再现了上海创意产业集群在地方—区域—全球三个不同地理维度的产业链接网络结构和联系强度,运用三角坐标法分别考察上海创意产业在劳动力市场、外部供给、消费市场、合作关系四个产业链环节的地方嵌入性和全球链接性,探讨学习和创新网络的重要作用。研究结果显示:首先,上海创意产业集群在各个产业链环节都表现出很强的地方黏性,尤其是在地方劳动力市场方面,上海创意产业集群的地方嵌入性最为显著。其次,上海创意产业集群的外部链接存在异质性,其中技术类创意部门与文化类创意部门在劳动力市场、消费市场和合作关系等方面均表现出较大差异,本文从知识分化视角出发对以上异质性进行了解释。最后,总结了上海创意产业集群全球生产网络的基本特征及其地方—全球互动关系,为揭示中国大都市地区文化创意产业集群的地方嵌入和全球网络形成机理提供了详实的案例分析。

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何金廖
黄贤金
司月芳
关键词 创意产业集群全球生产网络地方—全球互动;上海 
Abstract

The recent emergence of creative industries in Shanghai received much attention from policy and urban studies. Previous literature concentrated primarily on local cluster policy and the association with urban regeneration, while the embeddedness to what extent creative clusters in Shanghai are linked with different geographical levels of market has yet been fully understood. This paper aims to examine the structure of economic linkages of highly agglomerated creative clusters in Shanghai from the perspective of global production networks (GPNs) theory. By GPNs, both local and non-local forces are taken into account through an examination of the value-chains of production and consumption, namely labor market, external supply of intermediate inputs, customers, firms, and collaborators. Results show that the creative clusters in Shanghai are globally embedded into multi-scale markets. First, there is an evident tendency towards localization in every branch of linkages, especially in the labor market and external supply sides. Whereas, the international interactions are strongly observed in the consumption and collaboration sides, such as culture media and R&D industries. In addition, foreign collaboration in the operation of the creative economy in Shanghai is particularly significant because of their interdependent and complimentary relationship. This study also provides an important reference to reveal the mechanism of the formation of GPNs and local embeddedness of creative clusters in the metropolitan areas of China.

Key wordscreative industry clusters    global production networks    local-global interaction    Shanghai
收稿日期: 2018-01-31      出版日期: 2018-08-03
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41701180)
引用本文:   
何金廖, 黄贤金, 司月芳 . 产业集群的地方嵌入与全球生产网络链接——以上海文化创意产业园区为例[J]. 地理研究, 2018, 37(7): 1447-1459.
HE Jinliao, HUANG Xianjin, SI Yuefang . Local embeddedness and global production network of industrial clusters: Case study of the cultural creative districts in Shanghai[J]. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2018, 37(7): 1447-1459.
链接本文:  
http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/10.11821/dlyj201807015      或      http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I7/1447
Fig. 1  新产业区视角下产业集群的外部链接
注:根据Nachum等的企业外部链接模型修改得到[35]
Fig.2  上海创意产业园区分布及调研地点
Fig. 3  上海调研受访的创意企业占比(%)
Fig. 4  上海创意产业集群的劳动力市场的地理分布
Fig. 5  上海受访创意企业的外部供给分布图
Fig. 6  上海创意园区内企业消费市场的外部链接
Fig. 7  上海创意园区内企业的合作关系
Fig. 8  上海创意产业集群的外部链接强弱关系总结
外部链接 技术类创意部门 文化类创意部门
劳动力市场 更倾向于雇佣本地的技术员工,区域和海外联系相对较弱 强地方联系,较强的区域联系,海外联系较弱但发挥重要作用
外部供给 强地方联系,弱区域与海外联系(少量高科技企业依赖海外设备供给) 强地方联系,强区域联系,弱海外联系(少量高端文化产业依赖海外材料供给)
消费市场 客户主要来源于区域层面,海外联系相对较弱,本地市场竞争激烈 地方—区域—海外联系相对均衡,艺术类产品主要分销海外市场
合作机构 合作关系主要在区域层面,地方和海外联系也较强 艺术类企业以地方—海外联系为主,文化传媒企业以地方—区域联系为主,总体上以地方合作网络为主
学习与创新网络 很强的地方化学习网络,海外联系也很紧密,对海外技术(综合知识)需求较为强烈 以地方化的学习网络为主,海外学习网络相对较弱,强调地方文化(符号知识)的吸收
Tab. 1  上海技术类创意部门和文化类创意部门在各外部链接的异质性总结
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